Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Clin Liver Dis. 2018 Aug;22(3):533-544. doi: 10.1016/j.cld.2018.03.014. Epub 2018 May 28.

Chronic Complications of Cholestasis: Evaluation and Management.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine, Section of Digestive Diseases, Yale University School of Medicine, 333 Cedar Street, 1080 LMP, New Haven, CT 06510, USA. Electronic address: david.assis@yale.edu.

Abstract

Patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) are at risk for various harmful consequences of chronic cholestasis. These include fat-soluble vitamin deficiency, even in the setting of macronutrient sufficiency, as well as metabolic bone disease, including osteoporosis with fractures. Hyperlipidemia is often present and less commonly associated with risk of cardiovascular event; however, the long-term effect of new emerging therapies for PBC remains to be determined. Patients with PBC also have infrequent but notable risk of portal hypertension despite early-stage disease. This review discusses the background, evaluation, and practical management of these complications of chronic cholestasis.

KEYWORDS:

Cholestasis; Fat-soluble vitamin deficiency; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Hyperlipidemia; Malabsorption; Metabolic bone disease; Portal hypertension; Primary biliary cholangitis

PMID:
30259851
DOI:
10.1016/j.cld.2018.03.014
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Publication type, MeSH terms, Substances

Publication type

MeSH terms

Substances

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center