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Neuroimage. 2019 Jan 1;184:101-108. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2018.09.008. Epub 2018 Sep 8.

Functional MRS with J-edited lactate in human motor cortex at 4 T.

Author information

1
Magnetic Resonance Research Center, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA; Department of Radiology & Biomedical Imaging, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA. Electronic address: yury.koush@yale.edu.
2
Magnetic Resonance Research Center, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA; Department of Radiology & Biomedical Imaging, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.
3
Magnetic Resonance Research Center, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA; Department of Radiology & Biomedical Imaging, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.
4
Magnetic Resonance Research Center, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA; Department of Radiology & Biomedical Imaging, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA. Electronic address: fahmeed.hyder@yale.edu.

Abstract

While functional MRI (fMRI) localizes regions of brain activation, functional MRS (fMRS) provides insights into metabolic underpinnings. Previous fMRS studies detected task-induced lactate increase using short echo-time non-edited 1H-MRS protocols, where lactate changes depended on accurate exclusion of overlapping lactate and lipid/macromolecule signals. Because long echo-time J-difference 1H-MRS detection of lactate is less susceptible to this shortcoming, we posited if J-edited fMRS protocol could reliably detect metabolic changes in the human motor cortex during a finger-tapping paradigm in relation to a reliable measure of basal lactate. Our J-edited fMRS protocol at 4T was guided by an fMRI pre-scan to determine the 1H-MRS voxel placement in the motor cortex. Because lactate and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) follow similar J-evolution profiles we observed both metabolites in all spectra, but only lactate showed reproducible task-induced modulation by 0.07 mM from a basal value of 0.82 mM. These J-edited fMRS results demonstrate good sensitivity and specificity for task-induced lactate modulation, suggesting that J-edited fMRS studies can be used to investigate the metabolic underpinning of human cognition by measuring lactate dynamics associated with activation and deactivation fMRI paradigms across brain regions at magnetic field lower than 7T.

KEYWORDS:

Aerobic glycolysis; Energy metabolism; Finger tapping; Functional MRS; Glutamate-glutamine cycling; Lactate; Motor cortex; Neuroimaging; Oxidative phosphorylation; β-hydroxybutyrate

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