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Clin Genitourin Cancer. 2018 Dec;16(6):437-444.e6. doi: 10.1016/j.clgc.2018.07.021. Epub 2018 Jul 29.

Multicenter Phase 2 Trial of Gemcitabine, Carboplatin, and Sorafenib in Patients With Metastatic or Unresectable Transitional-Cell Carcinoma.

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Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, CT.
Department of Medicine, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, NJ.
Ohio State University Cancer Center, OH.
St Francis Hospital and Medical Center, Hartford, CT.
Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA.
Department of Medicine, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, NJ. Electronic address:



Sorafenib, an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor, may enhance the antitumor activity of platinum-based chemotherapy in transitional-cell carcinoma. This study investigated the safety and clinical outcome of adding sorafenib to gemcitabine and carboplatin for patients with advanced transitional-cell carcinoma.


Subjects with metastatic or unresectable chemotherapy-naive TCC with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 or 1 received gemcitabine (1000 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8) and carboplatin (area under the curve of 5 on day 1) with sorafenib (400 mg 2 times a day on days 2-19 every 21 days) for 6 cycles. Subjects with stable disease or partial or complete response continued to receive sorafenib until disease progression. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS) at 5 months with a secondary end point of response (partial or complete).


Seventeen subjects were enrolled. The median number of cycles of gemcitabine and carboplatin with sorafenib provided was 4.4. A total of 15, 5, and 8 subjects required reductions of gemcitabine, carboplatin, and sorafenib, respectively. Thirteen subjects (76%) required multiple dose reductions. Eleven subjects (65%) were free of progression at 5 months. The overall response rate was 54% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.28-077), with 4 patients experiencing complete response (24%; 95% CI, 0.07-0.50) and 5 partial response (29%; 95% CI, 0.10-0.56); 7 subjects (41%) had stable disease. Median PFS was 9.5 months (95% CI, 0.43-1.26), and median overall survival was 25.2 months (95% CI, 0.96-5.65). One-year PFS was 31%, and 1-year overall survival was 72%. Eleven subjects (65%) discontinued treatment because of toxicity. There were no toxic deaths.


Gemcitabine and carboplatin with sorafenib showed clinical activity in advanced TCC, with some prolonged progression-free intervals. However, gemcitabine and carboplatin with sorafenib was associated with significant toxicity, causing discontinuation of therapy in most patients.


Chemotherapy; First line; TCC; Tyrosine kinase inhibitor; Urothelial carcinoma

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