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J Diabetes Complications. 2018 Oct;32(10):961-965. doi: 10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2018.08.009. Epub 2018 Aug 10.

Gender differences in diabetes self-care in adults with type 1 diabetes: Findings from the T1D Exchange clinic registry.

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Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes, Aurora, CO 80045, United States of America.
Jaeb Center for Health Research, Tampa, FL, United States of America. Electronic address:
Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States of America.
Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, United States of America.
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States of America.
Jaeb Center for Health Research, Tampa, FL, United States of America.



To evaluate gender differences in diabetes self-care components including glycemic, blood pressure and lipid control, utilization of diabetes technologies and acute diabetes complications in adults with type 1 diabetes.


A total of 9,481 participants >18 years were included in the analysis, 53% were female. Variables of interest included glycemic control measured by HbA1c, systolic/diastolic blood pressures, presence of dyslipidemia, insulin delivery modality, and rates of acute complications.


Glycemic control was similar in women and men (mean HbA1c in both groups: 8.1% ± 1.6% (64 ± 16 mmol/mol), (p = 0.54). More women used insulin pump therapy (66% vs. 59%, p < 0.001) but use of sensor technology was similar (p < = 0.42). Women had higher rates of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) (5% vs. 3%, p < 0.001) and eating disorders (1.7% vs. 0.1%, p < 0.001). Severe hypoglycemia rates were not different between men and women (p = 0.42). Smoking (6% vs 4%, p < 0.001), systolic (125 ± 14.2 vs. 121 ± 14.4, p < 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (73.3 ± 9.5 vs. 72.2 ± 9.3, p < 0.001) and rate of dyslipidemia (28% vs. 23%, p < 0.001) were higher in men.


While glycemic control in type 1 diabetes was similar regardless of gender, rates of DKA and eating disorders were higher in women while rates of smoking, hypertension and dyslipidemia were higher in men.


Cardiovascular risk factors; Diabetes self-management; Eating disorder; Gender; Type 1 diabetes (T1D)

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