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AIDS. 2018 Sep 24;32(15):2247-2253. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000001946.

Gender and alcohol use: influences on HIV care continuum in a national cohort of patients with HIV.

Author information

1
Health Services Research & Development (HSR&D), Center of Innovation for Veteran-Centered Value-Driven Care, Veteran Affairs (VA) Puget Sound Healthcare System.
2
Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Services Research Institute, Seattle, Washington.
3
Veterans Aging Cohort Study Coordinating Center, VA Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven, Connecticut.
4
Kidney Health Research Collaborative, University of California, San Francisco, and VA San Francisco Healthcare System, San Francisco, California.
5
Women's Health Services, Veterans Health Administration, Department of Veterans Affairs, Washington DC.
6
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, Maryland.
7
Yale Schools of Medicine and Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut.
8
Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Division of Research, Oakland.
9
Department of Psychiatry, Weill Institute for Neurosciences, University of California, San Francisco.
10
Betty Irene Moore School of Nursing, University of California at Davis, Sacramento.
11
School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California.
12
Department of Health Services, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To investigate whether gender is associated with three recommended stages of the HIV care continuum and whether gender modifies known associations between level of alcohol use and HIV care among US veterans.

DESIGN:

Retrospective cohort.

METHODS:

Veterans Aging Cohort Study data were used to identify Veterans Health Administration (VA) patients with HIV and AUDIT-C alcohol screening from 1 February 2008 to 30 September 2014. Modified Poisson regression models estimated the relative risk and predicted prevalences of engagement in HIV care (documented CD4 cells/μl or viral load copies/ml lab values), ART treatment (at least one prescription), and viral suppression (HIV RNA <500 copies/ml) in the year following AUDIT-C (1) for women compared to men, and (2) for each level of alcohol use compared to nondrinking among women and among men. A multiplicative interaction between gender and alcohol use was tested.

RESULTS:

Among 33 224 patients, women (n = 971) were less likely than men (n = 32 253) to receive HIV care (P values <0.001). Respective predicted prevalences for women and men were 71.9% (95% CI 69.1-74.7%) and 77.9% (77.5-78.4%) for engagement, 60.0% (57.0-73.14%) and 73.8% (73.4-74.3%) for ART treatment, and 46.4% (43.3-49.6%) and 55.8% (55.3-56.3%) for viral suppression. Although the interaction between gender and alcohol use was not statistically significant, stratified analyses suggested worse outcomes for women than men at higher levels of alcohol use.

CONCLUSION:

In this large national cohort, women were less likely than men to be engaged in HIV medical care, prescribed ART, and virally suppressed. Interventions to improve HIV care for women are needed at all levels of alcohol use.

PMID:
30005010
PMCID:
PMC6136970
[Available on 2019-09-24]
DOI:
10.1097/QAD.0000000000001946

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