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Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2018 Aug;15(4):315-323. doi: 10.1007/s11904-018-0402-3.

Implementing Treatment of Opioid-Use Disorder in Rural Settings: a Focus on HIV and Hepatitis C Prevention and Treatment.

Author information

1
Department of Behavioral Science and Center on Drug and Alcohol Research, University of Kentucky, 845 Angliana Avenue, Lexington, KY, 40508, USA. Jennifer.havens@uky.edu.
2
Department of Behavioral Science and Center on Drug and Alcohol Research, University of Kentucky, 845 Angliana Avenue, Lexington, KY, 40508, USA.
3
Department of Medicine, Section of Addition Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USA.
4
Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.
5
Center for Interdisciplinary Research on AIDS, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT, USA.

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:

To describe the epidemiology of opioid-use disorder in the rural United States (U.S.) as it pertains to HIV and hepatitis C transmission and treatment resources.

RECENT FINDINGS:

Heroin and fentanyl analogs have surpassed prescription opioids in their availability in rural opioid markets adding to HIV and hepatitis C (HCV) and overdose risks. Only 18% of rural individuals live in towns with inpatient services which are of limited quality and utility. Opioid treatment programs that provide methadone are not located in rural areas and only 3% of the primary care providers have the ability to prescribe buprenorphine. National models and resources have been established but lack implementation in rural areas leading to ongoing HIV and HCV transmission and overdose. Addressing the adverse impact of opioids in the rural U.S. will require a concerted effort to implement effective treatments according to national standards.

KEYWORDS:

HIV; Hepatitis C; Opioid treatment; Opioid treatment programs

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