Send to

Choose Destination
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2018 Jul 1;22(7):793-799. doi: 10.5588/ijtld.17.0936.

Synergism between diabetes and human immunodeficiency virus in increasing the risk of tuberculosis.

Author information

Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases, AIDS Program, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
Church of Scotland Hospital, ARV Programme, Tugela Ferry, South Africa.
Yale Center for Analytical Sciences, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.



Community health screenings in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa.


To study the synergism between diabetes mellitus (DM) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in increasing the risk of tuberculosis (TB).


In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed data from two community health projects, one at congregate settings, and one at household settings (n = 7708), in a rural resource-limited region where integrated communicable and non-communicable disease screening services were offered. Odds ratios (ORs) for demographic factors, socio-economic factors, DM status, and HIV positivity were calculated using multivariate analysis, and the statistical interaction between HIV and DM was tested. The primary outcome was the presence of TB symptoms.


Among 7708 individuals, age >65 years (OR 1.72, 95%CI 1.47-2.02), HIV infection (OR 1.66, 95%CI 1.40-1.97) and DM (OR 1.36, 95%CI 1.11-1.67) were independently associated with increased odds of TB symptoms. Receiving monthly grants (OR 0.78, 95%CI 0.66-0.91), access to a toilet (OR 0.54, 95%CI 0.35-0.83), and access to solar or electric energy (OR 0.86, 95%CI 0.77-0.97) reduced the odds. There was evidence of significant interaction between DM and HIV on the multiplicative scale.


DM and HIV synergistically increased the odds of TB symptoms according to these retrospective data. Future studies should prospectively evaluate synergism between HIV and DM in increasing the risk of active TB.

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Ingenta plc Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center