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Ann Hum Biol. 2018 May;45(3):239-243. doi: 10.1080/03014460.2018.1473491.

Nutrient intake among Samoan children aged 2-4 years in 2015.

Author information

1
a Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health , Brown University , Providence , RI , USA.
2
b Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology , Yale School of Public Health , New Haven , CT , USA.
3
c Ministry of Health , Apia , Samoa.
4
d Samoa Bureau of Statistics , Apia , Samoa.
5
e Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition (IPAN), Deakin University , Burwood , VIC , Australia.
6
f Australian Institute for Musculoskeletal Science, Western Centre for Health Research and Education, Sunshine Hospital , St. Albans , VIC , Australia.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Young children are particularly vulnerable to malnutrition as nutrition transition progresses. The aim of this study was to examine the adequacy of macro- and micronutrient intake among 2-4.99-year-old Samoan children.

METHODS:

Child dietary intake was measured using a 117-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) with a 30-day reference period. Daily total energy and nutrient intake was calculated by multiplying the frequency of daily consumption by the nutrient content of a fixed, standard portion size. Adequacy of macro- and micronutrient intake was determined using age-specific US Dietary Guidelines.

RESULTS:

Most children met or exceeded recommendations for carbohydrate, fat and protein intake. More than half of the sample were not meeting the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for calcium (59.0%), 44.6% were not meeting RDA for potassium and intake of vitamin A and E was inadequate among 25.9% and 25.6%, respectively. Eighty per cent of children exceeded the tolerable upper limit for sodium. Adequacy of intake varied by age and census region of residence.

CONCLUSION:

Since inadequate dietary micronutrient intake was more common among older children (4-4.99 years) and those in the rural region, intervention should be targeted at those groups.

KEYWORDS:

Macronutrient; Samoa; childhood; micronutrient; obesity

PMID:
29877157
DOI:
10.1080/03014460.2018.1473491
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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