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J Occup Environ Med. 2018 Aug;60(8):e390-e396. doi: 10.1097/JOM.0000000000001371.

Level of Disability, Functioning, and Work Limitation: Association With Chronic Diseases in a Working Population.

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Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt (Drs Fouad, Gamal, Abdellah, Amer, Waheed); and Department of Chronic Diseases Epidemiology, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut (Drs Fouad, Shebl).



Chronic diseases are among the major causes of disability, and are associated with substantial individual and societal economic losses. The objective of this study was to assess the association of the different levels of disability, functioning, and work limitation, with chronic diseases.


A total of 516 workers were classified according to chronic disease status, and evaluated for disability, functioning and work Limitation. Quantile regression was performed to assess the associations across the quantiles of the disability, functioning, and work limitation.


Overall disability was significantly associated with chronic diseases across all quantiles, while work limitation was only significant at the median and higher quantiles. Functioning domains showed a variable pattern of associations across their quantiles.


Chronic diseases showed a variable magnitude and significance of associations across the levels of disability, functioning, and work limitation.

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