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J Am Heart Assoc. 2018 May 30;7(11). pii: e008189. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.117.008189.

Sex Differences in Omega-3 and -6 Fatty Acids and Health Status Among Young Adults With Acute Myocardial Infarction: Results From the VIRGO Study.

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Center for Outcomes Research and Evaluation, Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT.
Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT.
Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT.
Department of Emergency Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT.
Quest Diagnostics Nichols Institute, San Juan Capistrano, CA.
University of Missouri-Kansas City and Saint Luke's Mid America Heart Institute, Kansas City, MO.
Center for Outcomes Research and Evaluation, Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT
Department of Health Policy and Management, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT.



Young women (aged ≤55 years) with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have poorer health status outcomes than similarly aged men. Low omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) have been implicated as risk factors for cardiovascular outcomes in AMI patients, but it is not clear whether young women have similar or different post-AMI omega-3 FA profiles compared with young men.


We assessed the sex differences in post-AMI omega-3 FAs and the associations of these biomarkers with patient-reported outcomes (symptom, functioning status, and quality of life) at 12-month follow-up, using data from 2985 US adults with AMI aged 18 to 55 years enrolled in the VIRGO (Variation in Recovery: Role of Gender on Outcomes of Young Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients) study. Biomarkers including eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid/AA ratio, omega-3/omega-6 ratio, and omega-3 index were measured 1 month after AMI. Overall, the omega-3 FAs and AA were similar in young men and women with AMI. In both unadjusted and adjusted analysis (controlling for age, sex, race, smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, body mass index, and health status score at 1 month), omega-3 FAs and AA were not significantly associated with 12-month health status scores using the Bonferroni corrected statistical threshold.


We found no evidence of sex differences in omega-3 FAs and AA in young men and women 1 month after AMI. Omega-3 FAs and AA at 1-month after AMI were generally not associated with 12-month patient-reported health status after adjusting for patient demographic, clinical characteristics, and the corresponding 1-month health status score.


acute myocardial infarction; fatty acid; health status; omega‐3 fatty acids; women

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