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Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol. 2018 Oct;42(5):403-415. doi: 10.1016/j.clinre.2018.04.008. Epub 2018 May 9.

Animal models of cholangiocarcinoma: What they teach us about the human disease.

Author information

1
Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Padua, Viale G. Colombo 3, 35131 Padua, Italy; School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milan-Bicocca, Milan, Italy; International Center for Digestive Health (ICDH), University of Milan-Bicocca, Milan, Italy.
2
School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milan-Bicocca, Milan, Italy.
3
Department of Surgery, Oncology and Gastroenterology, University of Padua, Padua, Italy.
4
Section of Digestive Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.
5
Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Padua, Viale G. Colombo 3, 35131 Padua, Italy.
6
International Center for Digestive Health (ICDH), University of Milan-Bicocca, Milan, Italy; Section of Digestive Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.
7
School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milan-Bicocca, Milan, Italy; International Center for Digestive Health (ICDH), University of Milan-Bicocca, Milan, Italy; Section of Digestive Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.
8
Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Padua, Viale G. Colombo 3, 35131 Padua, Italy; International Center for Digestive Health (ICDH), University of Milan-Bicocca, Milan, Italy; Section of Digestive Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA. Electronic address: luca.fabris@unipd.it.

Abstract

Despite recent advances, pathogenesis of cholangiocarcinoma, a highly lethal cancer, remains enigmatic. Furthermore, treatment options are still limited and often disappointing. For this reason, in the last few years there has been a mounting interest towards the generation of experimental models able to reproduce the main features associated with this aggressive behavior. Toxic and infestation-induced, genetically engineered and cell implantation rodent models have been generated, contributing to a deeper understanding of the complex cell biology of the tumor, sustained by multiple cell interactions and driven by a huge variety of molecular perturbations. Herein, we will overview the most relevant animal models of biliary carcinogenesis, highlighting the methodological strategy, the molecular, histological and clinical phenotypes consistent with the human condition, their particular strengths and weaknesses and the novel therapeutic approaches that have been developed.

KEYWORDS:

Genetically engineered mouse models; Primary liver cancer; Syngeneic models; Toxic models; Xenotransplantation

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