Send to

Choose Destination
BMJ Open. 2018 May 10;8(5):e020918. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-020918.

The China Patient-centered Evaluative Assessment of Cardiac Events (China PEACE) retrospective heart failure study design.

Author information

National Clinical Research Center of Cardiovascular Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Fuwai Hospital, Beijing, China.
Center for Outcomes Research and Evaluation, Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
Division of Cardiology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado, USA.
Department of Health Policy and Management, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program the Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.



Heart failure (HF) is a leading cause of hospitalisation in China, which is experiencing a rapid increase in cardiovascular disease prevalence. Yet, little is known about current burden of disease, quality of care and treatment outcomes of HF in China. The objective of this paper is to describe the study methodology, data collection and abstraction, and progress to date of the China Patient-centered Evaluative Assessment of Cardiac Events 5 Retrospective Heart Failure Study (China PEACE 5r-HF).


The China PEACE 5r-HF Study will examine a nationally representative sample of more than 10 000 patient records hospitalised for HF in 2015 in China. The study is a retrospective cohort study. Patients have been selected using a two-stage sampling design stratified by economic-geographical regions. We will collect patient characteristics, diagnostic testing, treatments and in-hospital outcomes, including death and complications, and charges of hospitalisation. Data quality will be monitored by a central coordinating centre and will address case ascertainment, data abstraction and data management. As of October 2017, we have sampled 15 538 medical records from 189 hospitals, and have received 15 057 (96.9%) of these for data collection, and completed data abstraction and quality control on 7971.


The Central Ethics Committee at the Chinese National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases approved the study. All collaborating hospitals accepted central ethics committee approval with the exception of 15 hospitals, which obtained local approval by internal ethics committees. Findings will be disseminated in future peer-reviewed papers and will serve as a foundation for improving the care for HF in China.




China; epidemiology; heart failure; outcomes; quality of care

Conflict of interest statement

Competing interests: HMK works under contract with the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services to develop and maintain performance measures, is chair of a cardiac scientific advisory board for United Health, and is the recipient of research grants from Medtronic, Inc and Johnson & Johnson through Yale University.

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center