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Sci Rep. 2018 May 2;8(1):6870. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-25234-w.

Seasonal dynamics of typhoid and paratyphoid fever.

Author information

1
Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America. neil.saad@yale.edu.
2
Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America.
3
Centre for International Health, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
4
Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America. virginia.pitzer@yale.edu.

Abstract

Typhoid and paratyphoid fever may follow a seasonal pattern, but this pattern is not well characterized. Moreover, the environmental drivers that influence seasonal dynamics are not fully understood, although increasing evidence suggests that rainfall and temperature may play an important role. We compiled a database of typhoid, paratyphoid, or enteric fever and their potential environmental drivers. We assessed the seasonal dynamics by region and latitude, quantifying the mean timing of peak prevalence and seasonal variability. Moreover, we investigated the potential drivers of the seasonal dynamics and compared the seasonal dynamics for typhoid and paratyphoid fever. We observed a distinct seasonal pattern for enteric and typhoid fever by latitude, with seasonal variability more pronounced further from the equator. We also found evidence of a positive association between preceding rainfall and enteric fever among settings 35°-11°N and a more consistent positive association between temperature and enteric fever incidence across most regions of the world. In conclusion, we identified varying seasonal dynamics for enteric or typhoid fever in association with environmental factors. The underlying mechanisms that drive the seasonality of enteric fever are likely dependent on the local context and should be taken into account in future control efforts.

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