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Cell Mol Life Sci. 2018 Aug;75(15):2735-2761. doi: 10.1007/s00018-018-2828-6. Epub 2018 Apr 25.

PAR3-PAR6-atypical PKC polarity complex proteins in neuronal polarization.

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Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Minnesota, 401 East River Parkway, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, USA.
Department of Immunobiology, School of Medicine, Yale University, 300 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT, 06520, USA.
Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Yale University, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT, 06520, USA.
Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Yale University, 300 George Street, New Haven, CT, 06511, USA.


Polarity is a fundamental feature of cells. Protein complexes, including the PAR3-PAR6-aPKC complex, have conserved roles in establishing polarity across a number of eukaryotic cell types. In neurons, polarity is evident as distinct axonal versus dendritic domains. The PAR3, PAR6, and aPKC proteins also play important roles in neuronal polarization. During this process, either aPKC kinase activity, the assembly of the PAR3-PAR6-aPKC complex or the localization of these proteins is regulated downstream of a number of signaling pathways. In turn, the PAR3, PAR6, and aPKC proteins control various effector molecules to establish neuronal polarity. Herein, we discuss the many signaling mechanisms and effector functions that have been linked to PAR3, PAR6, and aPKC during the establishment of neuronal polarity.


Axon specification; CDC42/RAC; Crumbs; Dendritogenesis; PKMĪ¶; Signaling; Wnt

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