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Neurourol Urodyn. 2018 Nov;37(8):2398-2405. doi: 10.1002/nau.23592. Epub 2018 Apr 23.

Mouse urothelial genes associated with voiding behavior changes after ovariectomy and bladder lipopolysaccharide exposure.

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Departments of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.
Department of Urology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.
Yale Center for Analytical Sciences, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut.
Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.



Symptoms from overactive bladder (OAB) and cystitis secondary to urinary tract infection (UTI) can be similar in post-menopausal women. Effects of ovariectomy (OVX) on voiding behavior after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) intravesical exposure (surrogate for cystitis) in mice were measured. Urothelial genes associated with micturition changes were identified.


Female C57BL6/J mice underwent OVX or sham surgeries (n = 10 for each). Voiding spot assays (VSA) were performed prior to surgery, 4 weeks post-surgery, and each time after 3 consecutive days of transurethral instillation of LPS. In another experiment, mice underwent either sham (n = 9) or OVX (n = 9) surgeries. Urothelial RNAs were collected 4 weeks post-surgery, day 1 and day 3 after LPS instillation. Mouse Gene 2.0 ST Arrays (entire 34 K transcripts) were used for microarray hybridization. A set of criteria was utilized to identify gene expression changes that mimicked voiding behavior changes.


Three days after LPS exposure, OVX mice persisted with overactive whereas sham mice normalized voiding behavior. Nine urothelial paralleling voiding behavior changes were identified: IL6 (interleukin 6), IL6rα (Interleukin 6 receptor α), Ptgs2 (Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 or COX-2), Ereg (epiregulin), Dusp6 (dual specificity phosphatase 6), Zfp948 (zinc finger protein 948), Zfp52 (Zinc finger protein 52), Gch1 (GTP cyclohydrolase 1), and Amd (S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase). Three other genes, coding unknown proteins, were also identified: GM12840, GM23134, and GM26809.


OVX mice persisted with increased voiding frequency after LPS. Urothelial genes that could mediate this voiding behavior include IL6, COX-2, and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase.


host response; overactive bladder; urothelium


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