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Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2018 May;29(2):205-243. doi: 10.1016/j.pmr.2018.01.014.

Acute and Chronic Musculoskeletal Injury in Para Sport: A Critical Review.

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Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology, Yale School of Public Health, 60 College Street, New Haven, CT 06510, USA. Electronic address:
Department of Sports Medicine and Medical Rehabilitation, Sechenov University, 2-4 Bolshaya Pirogovskaya Street, Moscow 119991, Russia.
Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Yale School of Medicine, 47 College Street, New Haven, CT 06511, USA.
Cushing/Whitney Medical Library, Yale University, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 06510, USA.
Department of Exercise Science, Black Hills State University, 1200 University Street, Spearfish, SD 57799, USA.
Centre for Sport and Exercise Science and Medicine (SESAME), School of Sport and Service Management, University of Brighton, Mithras House Lewes Road, Brighton BN2 4AT, UK.


Sport-related injury patterns among Para athletes have been described with increasing frequency. This review summarizes musculoskeletal injuries in Para athletes. Seated Para athletes sustain upper extremity injuries more commonly; ambulant Para athletes frequently sustain lower extremity injuries. The upper extremity is the most commonly injured anatomic area in all Para athletes, unlike able-bodied athletes. Advanced age and spinal cord injury may increase the risk of upper extremity injury. Injury data for recreational and youth Para athletes are sparse. Summarizing current injury epidemiology data may help to accelerate the development of injury prevention strategies and lifetime injury models for Para athletes.


Injury epidemiology; Musculoskeletal injury; Para athlete; Paralympic sport; Review

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