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Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2018 Jun;51:85-90. doi: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2018.03.008. Epub 2018 Mar 10.

Cerebral gray matter volume losses in essential tremor: A case-control study using high resolution tissue probability maps.

Author information

1
School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, 550 Stadium Mall Dr., West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA; Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Indiana University School of Medicine, 550 University Blvd., Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA.
2
Department of Radiology, Citigroup Biomedical Imaging Center, Weill Cornell Medicine, 516 E. 72nd St., New York, NY 10021, USA.
3
Department of Neurology, Yale School of Medicine, Yale University, P.O. Box 208018, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.
4
Department of Neurology, Yale School of Medicine, Yale University, P.O. Box 208018, New Haven, CT 06520, USA; Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology, Yale School of Public Health, Yale University, 600 College St., P.O. Box 208034, New Haven, CT 06520, USA; Center for Neuroepidemiology and Clinical Neurological Research, Yale School of Medicine, Yale University, 333 Cedar St., New Haven, CT 06510, USA.
5
School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, 550 Stadium Mall Dr., West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA; Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Indiana University School of Medicine, 550 University Blvd., Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA. Electronic address: udydak@purdue.edu.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Essential tremor (ET) is increasingly recognized as a multi-dimensional disorder with both motor and non-motor features. For this reason, imaging studies are more broadly examining regions outside the cerebellar motor loop. Reliable detection of cerebral gray matter (GM) atrophy requires optimized processing, adapted to high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We investigated cerebral GM volume loss in ET cases using automated segmentation of MRI T1-weighted images.

METHODS:

MRI was acquired on 47 ET cases and 36 controls. Automated segmentation and voxel-wise comparisons of volume were performed using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) software. To improve upon standard protocols, the high-resolution International Consortium for Brain Mapping (ICBM) 2009a atlas and tissue probability maps were used to process each subject image. Group comparisons were performed: all ET vs. Controls, ET with head tremor (ETH) vs. Controls, and severe ET vs. Controls. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed between ET with and without head tremor and controls. Age, sex, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score were regressed out from each comparison.

RESULTS:

We were able to consistently identify regions of cerebral GM volume loss in ET and in ET subgroups in the posterior insula, superior temporal gyri, cingulate cortex, inferior frontal gyri and other occipital and parietal regions. There were no significant increases in GM volume in ET in any comparisons with controls.

CONCLUSION:

This study, which uses improved methodologies, provides evidence that GM volume loss in ET is present beyond the cerebellum, and in fact, is widespread throughout the cerebrum as well.

KEYWORDS:

Cerebrum; Essential tremor; Gray matter volume; High-resolution MRI; VBM

PMID:
29574086
PMCID:
PMC6005739
[Available on 2019-06-01]
DOI:
10.1016/j.parkreldis.2018.03.008

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