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J Epidemiol Community Health. 2018 Jul;72(7):605-610. doi: 10.1136/jech-2017-209681. Epub 2018 Mar 7.

Intimate partner violence against low-income women in Mexico City and associations with work-related disruptions: a latent class analysis using cross-sectional data.

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Department of Global and Community Health, College of Health and Human Services, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA.
Center for Interdisciplinary Research on AIDS, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
International Rescue Committee, New York City, New York, USA.
Department of Reproductive Health and Research, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
Population Council of Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico.



Disrupting women's employment is a strategy that abusive partners could use to prevent women from maintaining economic independence and stability. Yet, few studies have investigated disruptions in employment among victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) in low-income and middle-income countries. Moreover, even fewer have sought to identify which female victims of IPV are most vulnerable to such disruptions.


Using baseline data from 947 women in Mexico City enrolled in a randomised controlled trial, multilevel latent class analysis (LCA) was used to classify women based on their reported IPV experiences. Furthermore, multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed on a subsample of women reporting current work (n=572) to investigate associations between LCA membership and IPV-related employment disruptions.


Overall, 40.6% of women who were working at the time of the survey reported some form of work-related disruption due to IPV. LCA identified four distinct classes of IPV experiences: Low Physical and Sexual Violence (39.1%); High Sexual and Low Physical Violence class (9.6%); High Physical and Low Sexual Violence and Injuries (36.5%); High Physical and Sexual Violence and Injuries (14.8%). Compared with women in the Low Physical and Sexual Violence class, women in the High Physical and Sexual Violence and Injuries class and women in the High Physical and Low Sexual Violence and Injuries class were at greater risk of work disruption (adjusted relative risk (ARR) 2.44, 95% CI 1.80 to 3.29; ARR 2.05, 95% CI 1.56 to 2.70, respectively). No other statistically significant associations emerged.


IPV, and specific patterns of IPV experiences, must be considered both in work settings and, more broadly, by economic development programmes.




Latin America; Mexico; economic empowerment; employment; latent class analysis; violence against women

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