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Pak J Med Sci. 2017 Nov-Dec;33(6):1424-1428. doi: 10.12669/pjms.336.13699.

Flipped classroom instructional approach in undergraduate medical education.

Author information

Syeda Sadia Fatima, MBBS, M.Phil, PhD. Department of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, The Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.
Fazal Manzoor Arain, MBBS, PhD. Department of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, The Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.
Syed Ather Enam, MD, PhD, FRCS, FRCS, FACS. Department of Surgery, The Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.



In this study we implemented the "flipped classroom" model to enhance active learning in medical students taking neurosciences module at Aga Khan University, Karachi.


Ninety eight undergraduate medical students participated in this study. The study was conducted from January till March 2017. Study material was provided to students in form of video lecture and reading material for the non-face to face sitting, while face to face time was spent on activities such as case solving, group discussions, and quizzes to consolidate learning under the supervision of faculty. To ensure deeper learning, we used pre- and post-class quizzes, work sheets and blog posts for each session. Student feedback was recorded via a likert scale survey.


Eighty four percent students gave positive responses towards utility of flipped classroom in terms of being highly interactive, thought provoking and activity lead learning. Seventy five percent of the class completed the pre-session preparation. Students reported that their queries and misconceptions were cleared in a much better way in the face-to-face session as compared to the traditional setting (4.09 ±1.04).


Flipped classroom(FCR) teaching and learning pedagogy is an effective way of enhancing student engagement and active learning. Thus, this pedagogy can be used as an effective tool in medical schools.


E-Learning; Flipped classroom; Medical Education; Medical students

Conflict of interest statement

Declaration of interest: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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