Send to

Choose Destination
Oncotarget. 2017 Dec 12;9(5):5876-5891. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.23143. eCollection 2018 Jan 19.

Inhibition of NF-κB prevents the acidic bile-induced oncogenic mRNA phenotype, in human hypopharyngeal cells.

Author information

The Yale Larynx Laboratory, Department of Surgery, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.


Bile-containing gastro-duodenal reflux has been clinically considered an independent risk factor in hypopharyngeal carcinogenesis. We recently showed that the chronic effect of acidic bile, at pH 4.0, selectively induces NF-κB activation and accelerates the transcriptional levels of genes, linked to head and neck cancer, in normal hypopharyngeal epithelial cells. Here, we hypothesize that NF-κB inhibition is capable of preventing the acidic bile-induced and cancer-related mRNA phenotype, in treated normal human hypopharyngeal cells. In this setting we used BAY 11-7082, a specific and well documented pharmacologic inhibitor of NF-κB, and we observed that BAY 11-7082 effectively inhibits the acidic bile-induced gene expression profiling of the NF-κB signaling pathway (down-regulation of 72 out of 84 analyzed genes). NF-κB inhibition significantly prevents the acidic bile-induced transcriptional activation of NF-κB transcriptional factors, RELA (p65) and c-REL, as well as genes related to and commonly found in established HNSCC cell lines. These include anti-apoptotic bcl-2, oncogenic STAT3, EGFR, ∆Np63, TNF-α and WNT5A, as well as cytokines IL-1β and IL-6. Our findings are consistent with our hypothesis demonstrating that NF-κB inhibition effectively prevents the acidic bile-induced cancer-related mRNA phenotype in normal human hypopharyngeal epithelial cells supporting an understanding that NF-κB may be a critical link between acidic bile and early preneoplastic events in this setting.


NF-kB inhibitor; bile acids; hypopharyngeal carcinogenesis; laryngopharyngeal reflux; mRNA phenotype

Conflict of interest statement

CONFLICTS OF INTEREST The authors whose names are listed in this article certify that they have NO affiliations with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial interest, or non-financial interest in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript.

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Impact Journals, LLC Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center