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Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2018 Feb 15;341:87-97. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2018.01.013. Epub 2018 Feb 3.

Combined effects of simultaneous exposure to six phthalates and emulsifier glycerol monosterate on male reproductive system in rats.

Author information

1
Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, China.
2
Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology, Yale School of Public Health, School of Medicine, Yale University, 60 College Street, New Haven, CT 06520-8034, USA.
3
Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, China; Suzhou Key Laboratory of Environment and Biosafety, Suzhou 215123, China. Electronic address: q_xu68@163.com.
4
Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Supramolecular Medicinal Material and Applications, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210046, China; Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory for Molecular and Medicinal Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210046, China. Electronic address: yushuqin@njnu.edu.cn.

Abstract

Human beings are inevitably exposed to ubiquitous phthalate esters (PEs), and simultaneously ingesting high quantities of food emulsifiers via daily diet. Glycerin monostearate (GMS) is a widely used food emulsifier. The purposes of this study were to investigate the combined effects between the mixture of six frequently used PEs (MIXPs) and GMS on male rat reproductive system, and further to explore the underlying mechanisms. Male rats were orally administered either sodium carboxymethyl cellulose as controls or MIXPs at three different low-doses with or without GMS (200mg/kg/d) by gavage. The 15-week exposure of MIXPs caused male reproductive toxicity in a dose- and time-dependent manner, including the decrease of serum testosterone and morphological damage of testis. Metabonomics analyses of urine and Western blotting analyses of steroidogenic proteins (StAR, P450scc, CYP17A1, 17β-HSD and P450arom) indicated that MIXPs exposure down-regulated the expression of steroidogenic proteins, and might alter androgen metabolism. The results also showed that the presence of GMS exacerbated the toxicities of MIXPs to male rat reproductive system. These findings suggest that food emulsifier GMS could enhance the toxic effects of MIXPs on male hormone biosynthesis.

KEYWORDS:

Combined effects; Glycerin monostearate; Long-term low-dose exposure; Metabonomics; Phthalates; Reproductive toxicity

PMID:
29366639
DOI:
10.1016/j.taap.2018.01.013
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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