Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Arch Med Res. 2017 Nov;48(8):735-753. doi: 10.1016/j.arcmed.2017.11.003. Epub 2017 Dec 29.

Gut Microbiota in Obesity and Metabolic Abnormalities: A Matter of Composition or Functionality?

Author information

1
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT), Ciudad de México, México; Unidad de Genómica de Poblaciones Aplicada a la Salud, Facultad de Química, UNAM/Instituto Nacional de Medicina Genómica, Ciudad de México, México. Electronic address: smoran@inmegen.gob.mx.
2
Unidad de Genómica de Poblaciones Aplicada a la Salud, Facultad de Química, UNAM/Instituto Nacional de Medicina Genómica, Ciudad de México, México.
3
Unidad de Genómica de Poblaciones Aplicada a la Salud, Facultad de Química, UNAM/Instituto Nacional de Medicina Genómica, Ciudad de México, México. Electronic address: cani@unam.mx.

Abstract

The obesity pandemic and the metabolic complications derived from it represent a major public health challenge worldwide. Although obesity is a multifactorial disease, research from the past decade suggests that the gut microbiota interacts with host genetics and diet, as well as with other environmental factors, and thus contributes to the development of obesity and related complications. Despite abundant research on animal models, substantial evidence from humans has only started to accumulate over the past few years. Thus, the aim of the present review is to discuss structural and functional characteristics of the gut microbiome in human obesity, challenges associated with multi-omic technologies, and advances in identifying microbial metabolites with a direct link to obesity and metabolic complications. To date, studies suggests that obesity is related to low microbial diversity and taxon depletion sometimes resulting from an interaction with host dietary habits and genotype. These findings support the idea that the depletion or absence of certain taxa leaves an empty niche, likely leading to compromised functionality and thus promoting dysbiosis. Although the role of altered gut microbiota as cause or consequence of obesity remains controversial, research on microbial genomes and metabolites points towards an increased extraction of energy from the diet in obesity and suggests that metabolites, such as trimethylamine-N-oxide or branched-chain amino acids, participate in metabolic complications. Future research should be focused on structural and functional levels to unravel the mechanism linking gut microbiota and obesity.

KEYWORDS:

Metabolomics; Microbiome; Obesity

PMID:
29292011
DOI:
10.1016/j.arcmed.2017.11.003
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center