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Cureus. 2017 Oct 25;9(10):e1801. doi: 10.7759/cureus.1801.

Curated Collection for Educators: Five Key Papers about the Flipped Classroom Methodology.

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Emergency Medicine, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center.
Emergency Medicine, University of California at Irvine.
Emergency Medicine, Geisinger Medical Center.
Ohiohealth Learning, OhioHealth.
Emergency Medicine, University of Queensland.
Emergency Medicine, Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine, North Shore University Hospital.
Department of Emergency Medicine, Rush University Medical Center.


The flipped classroom (FC) pedagogy is becoming increasingly popular in medical education due to its appeal to the millennial learner and potential benefits in knowledge acquisition. Despite its popularity and effectiveness, the FC educational method is not without challenges. In this article, we identify and summarize several key papers relevant to medical educators interested in exploring the FC teaching methodology. The authors identified an extensive list of papers relevant to FC pedagogy via online discussions within the Academic Life in Emergency Medicine (ALiEM) Faculty Incubator. This list was augmented by an open call on Twitter (utilizing the #meded, #FOAMed, and #flippedclassroom hashtags) yielding a list of 33 papers. We then conducted a three-round modified Delphi process within the authorship group, which included both junior and senior clinician educators, to identify the most impactful papers for educators interested in FC pedagogy. The three-round modified Delphi process ranked all of the selected papers and selected the five most highly-rated papers for inclusion. The authorship group reviewed and summarized these papers with specific consideration given to their value to junior faculty educators and faculty developers interested in the flipped classroom approach. The list of papers featured in this article serves as a key reading list for junior clinician educators and faculty developers interested in the flipped classroom technique. The associated commentaries contextualize the importance of these papers for medical educators aiming to optimize their understanding and implementation of the flipped classroom methodology in their teaching and through faculty development.


curated collection; flipped classroom; medical education; modified delphi method; pedagogy

Conflict of interest statement

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

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