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Violence Gend. 2017 Dec 1;4(4):121-129. doi: 10.1089/vio.2017.0030.

Victimization and Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Related Risk Among Transgender Women in India: A Latent Profile Analysis.

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Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut.
Center for Interdisciplinary Research on AIDS, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.
Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), School of Public Health, Chandigarh, India.
Centre for Sexuality and Health Research and Policy (C-SHaRP), Chennai, India.
The Fenway Institute, Fenway Health, Boston, Massachusetts.


Globally, transgender women (TGW) experience multiple forms of victimization such as violence and discrimination that can place them at risk for poor sexual health. To date, research overlooks the heterogeneity in experiences of victimization among TGW. Furthermore, few studies have examined the association between victimization and sexual risk among TGW in India, despite the high burden of HIV and victimization in this community. Latent profile analysis was performed to identify patterns of victimization in a convenience sample of 299 TGW recruited from nongovernmental organizations across four states in India. Analysis of covariance was performed to examine differences in sexual risk (i.e., alcohol use before sex; inconsistent condom use with a male regular partner, a male causal partner, and a male paying partner; and having multiple sexual partners) between latent profiles. Five distinct profiles of Indian TGW were identified based on the type and severity of victimization: (1) Low victimization, (2) High verbal police victimization, (3) High verbal and physical police victimization, (4) Moderate victimization, and (5) High victimization. While controlling for age, education, income, HIV status, and marital status, results revealed that TGW in the moderate victimization and high victimization profiles had higher sexual risk than TGW in the low victimization and high verbal police victimization profiles. In addition, TGW in high verbal and physical police victimization profile had higher sexual risk than TGW in low victimization profile. These findings underscore the importance of tailoring sexual risk reduction interventions to the specific needs of TGW based on patterns of victimization.


India; condom use; latent profile analysis; sexual risk; transgender women; victimization

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