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J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018 Mar 1;103(3):1088-1094. doi: 10.1210/jc.2017-02265.

Pramlintide but Not Liraglutide Suppresses Meal-Stimulated Glucagon Responses in Type 1 Diabetes.

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Department of Pediatrics, Endocrinology and Diabetes Section, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.
Department of Women's and Children's Health, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.



Postprandial hyperglycemia remains a challenge in type 1 diabetes (T1D) due, in part, to dysregulated increases in plasma glucagon levels after meals.


This study was undertaken to examine whether 3 to 4 weeks of therapy with pramlintide or liraglutide might help to blunt postprandial hyperglycemia in T1D by suppressing plasma glucagon responses to mixed-meal feedings.


Two parallel studies were conducted in which participants underwent mixed-meal tolerance tests (MMTTs) without premeal bolus insulin administration before and after 3 to 4 weeks of treatment with either pramlintide (8 participants aged 20 ± 3 years, hemoglobin A1c 6.9 ± 0.5%) or liraglutide (10 participants aged 22 ± 3 years, hemoglobin A1c 7.6 ± 0.9%).


Compared with pretreatment responses to the MMTT, treatment with pramlintide reduced the peak increment in glucagon from 32 ± 16 to 23 ± 12 pg/mL (P < 0.02). In addition, the incremental area under the plasma glucagon curve from 0 to 120 minutes dropped from 1988 ± 590 to 737 ± 577 pg/mL/min (P < 0.001), which was accompanied by a similar reduction in the meal-stimulated increase in the plasma glucose curve from 11,963 ± 1424 mg/dL/min pretreatment vs 2493 ± 1854 mg/dL/min after treatment (P < 0.01). In contrast, treatment with liraglutide had no effect on plasma glucagon and glucose responses during the MMTT.


Adjunctive treatment with pramlintide may provide an effective means to blunt postmeal hyperglycemia in T1D by suppressing dysregulated plasma glucagon responses. In contrast, plasma glucose and glucagon responses were unchanged after 3 to 4 weeks of treatment with liraglutide.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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