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Soc Sci Med. 2017 Dec;195:159-169. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2017.10.004. Epub 2017 Oct 30.

Improving correctional healthcare providers' ability to care for transgender patients: Development and evaluation of a theory-driven cultural and clinical competence intervention.

Author information

1
Yale School of Public Health, United States; The Fenway Institute, Fenway Health, United States. Electronic address: jaclyn.white@yale.edu.
2
University of California Los Angeles Fielding School of Public Health, United States.
3
Yale School of Public Health, United States; Yale School of Medicine, United States.
4
The Fenway Institute, Fenway Health, United States; Boston Children's Hospital/Harvard Medical School, United States; Harvard T.H Chan School of Public Health, United States.
5
Yale School of Public Health, United States.

Abstract

RATIONALE:

Correctional healthcare providers' limited cultural and clinical competence to care for transgender patients represents a barrier to care for incarcerated transgender individuals.

OBJECTIVE:

The present study aimed to adapt, deliver, and evaluate a transgender cultural and clinical competence intervention for correctional healthcare providers.

METHOD:

In the summer of 2016, a theoretically-informed, group-based intervention to improve transgender cultural and clinical competence was delivered to 34 correctional healthcare providers in New England. A confidential survey assessed providers' cultural and clinical competence to care for transgender patients, self-efficacy to provide hormone therapy, subjective norms related to transgender care, and willingness to provide gender-affirming care to transgender patients before and after (immediately and 3-months) the intervention. Linear mixed effects regression models were fit to assess change in study outcomes over time. Qualitative exit interviews assessed feasibility and acceptability of the intervention.

RESULTS:

Providers' willingness to provide gender-affirming care improved immediately post-intervention (β = 0.38; SE = 0.41, p < 0.001) and from baseline to 3-months post-intervention (β = 0.36; SE = 0.09; p < 0.001; omnibus test of fixed effects χ2 = 23.21; p < 0.001). On average, transgender cultural competence (χ2 = 22.49; p < 0.001), medical gender affirmation knowledge (χ2 = 11.24; p = 0.01), self-efficacy to initiate hormones for transgender women, and subjective norms related to transgender care (χ2 = 14.69; p = 0.001) all significantly increased over time. Providers found the intervention to be highly acceptable and recommended that the training be scaled-up to other correctional healthcare providers and expanded to custody staff.

CONCLUSION:

The intervention increased correctional healthcare providers' cultural and clinical competence, self-efficacy, subjective norms, and willingness to provide gender-affirming care to transgender patients. Continued efforts should be made to train correctional healthcare providers in culturally and clinically competent gender-affirming care in order to improve the health of incarcerated transgender people. Future efficacy testing of this intervention is warranted.

KEYWORDS:

Healthcare; Incarceration; Intervention; Providers; Transgender

PMID:
29096945
PMCID:
PMC5712271
DOI:
10.1016/j.socscimed.2017.10.004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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