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Z Evid Fortbild Qual Gesundhwes. 2017 Oct;126:84-93. doi: 10.1016/j.zefq.2017.07.007. Epub 2017 Oct 11.

Cross-year peer-assisted learning using the inverted ("flipped") classroom design: A pilot study in dentistry.

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Dermatologie und Allergologie, Kantonsspital Aarau, Aarau, Schweiz.
Poliklinik für Zahnerhaltung, Carolinum Zahnärztliches Universitäts-Institut gGmbH, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt am Main.
Poliklinik für Zahnerhaltung, Carolinum Zahnärztliches Universitäts-Institut gGmbH, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt am Main. Electronic address:



The inverted classroom model (ICM) represents a special combination of online and attendance learning. The implementation of the didactic concept of "peer-assisted learning" (PAL) within an ICM design has not yet been described in the literature for the field of restorative dentistry.


It was the goal of the present study to develop an ICM offering in a cross-year PAL format (ICM-cyPAL), and then introduce and evaluate it.


The pilot project was conducted at the dental clinic at the Goethe University of Frankfurt/Main, where following its conceptual development and implementation with three consecutive cohorts of students in their first clinical semester (the sixth semester at university) the ICM-cyPAL offering was evaluated. Data on acceptance, tutor effectiveness, group interaction models and learning strategies were collected using an evaluative instrument.


121 students (tutees) participated in three cohorts. The response rate reached 98.3 %. In total, the offering was given an average rating of 6.97±1.93 (from 1 = unsatisfactory to 10 = excellent). As the tutees explained the attention that the tutors employed gave to the group was "just right" (4.65±1.04; where 1 = too controlling and 4 = just right to 7 = left the group on their own too long) and talked "just the right amount" (4.54±0.95; where 1 = too much and 4 = just right to 7 = talked too little). The results for tutor effectiveness reached values between 3.26±0.94 and 3.78±0.87; for the evaluation of group interaction models average values were obtained from 3.41±0.98 to 3.89±0.73 (on a Likert scale of 1 = do not at all agree to 5 = completely agree). Concerning the surveyed learning strategies, the dimensions of "resource management" and "implementation of the learning materials" were given the highest and lowest rankings, respectively.


The tutees' ratings of the newly developed and implemented ICM-cyPAL offering in the dental context were mainly positive. The thematic orientation of the structured training program needs to be optimized. The offering itself requires both a high degree of organization and solid financial and staffing resources.


E-Learning; ICM; Inverted-Classroom-Modell; Mentoring; POL; Peer-Assisted Learning; Schulung; Tutoren; Zahnmedizin; dentistry; e-learning; inverted classroom model; mentoring; peer-assisted learning; training; tutoring

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