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Immunol Rev. 2017 Nov;280(1):8-25. doi: 10.1111/imr.12585.

Death begets a new beginning.

Author information

1
I. Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.
2
Bernard-Nocht-Institut für Tropenmedizin, Hamburg, Germany.
3
Department of Immunobiology, School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.
4
Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.
5
Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.

Abstract

Cell death is a perpetual feature of tissue microenvironments; each day under homeostatic conditions, billions of cells die and must be swiftly cleared by phagocytes. However, cell death is not limited to this natural turnover-apoptotic cell death can be induced by infection, inflammation, or severe tissue injury. Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells is thus coupled to specific functions, from the induction of growth factors that can stimulate the replacement of dead cells to the promotion of tissue repair or tissue remodeling in the affected site. In this review, we outline the mechanisms by which phagocytes sense apoptotic cell death and discuss how phagocytosis is integrated with environmental cues to drive appropriate responses.

KEYWORDS:

apoptosis; homeostatic clearance; inflammation; macrophages; phagocytosis; tissue repair

PMID:
29027219
PMCID:
PMC5658037
[Available on 2018-11-01]
DOI:
10.1111/imr.12585
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