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J Magn Reson. 2017 Oct;283:33-44. doi: 10.1016/j.jmr.2017.08.004. Epub 2017 Aug 12.

Comparison of direct 13C and indirect 1H-[13C] MR detection methods for the study of dynamic metabolic turnover in the human brain.

Author information

1
Magnetic Resonance Research Center, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale University, School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA; Department of Electronic Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, China.
2
Magnetic Resonance Research Center, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale University, School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.
3
Department of Electronic Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, China.
4
Magnetic Resonance Research Center, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale University, School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA. Electronic address: robin.degraaf@yale.edu.

Abstract

A wide range of direct 13C and indirect 1H-[13C] MR detection methods exist to probe dynamic metabolic pathways in the human brain. Choosing an optimal detection method is difficult as sequence-specific features regarding spatial localization, broadband decoupling, spectral resolution, power requirements and sensitivity complicate a straightforward comparison. Here we combine density matrix simulations with experimentally determined values for intrinsic 1H and 13C sensitivity, T1 and T2 relaxation and transmit efficiency to allow selection of an optimal 13C MR detection method for a given application and magnetic field. The indirect proton-observed, carbon-edited (POCE) detection method provides the highest accuracy at reasonable RF power deposition both at 4T and 7T. The various polarization transfer methods all have comparable performances, but may become infeasible at 7T due to the high RF power deposition. 2D MR methods have limited value for the metabolites considered (primarily glutamate, glutamine and γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)), but may prove valuable when additional information can be extracted, such as isotopomers or lipid composition. While providing the lowest accuracy, the detection of non-protonated carbons is the simplest to implement with the lowest RF power deposition. The magnetic field homogeneity is one of the most important parameters affecting the detection accuracy for all metabolites and all acquisition methods.

KEYWORDS:

Carbon-13; Decoupling; Proton; Sensitivity; Spectral resolution

PMID:
28869920
DOI:
10.1016/j.jmr.2017.08.004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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