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Pathog Dis. 2017 Aug 31;75(6). doi: 10.1093/femspd/ftx078.

Design, synthesis and antiviral evaluation of novel heteroarylcarbothioamide derivatives as dual inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase-associated RNase H and RDDP functions.

Author information

1
Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e dell'Ambiente, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria di Monserrato, 09042 Monserrato (Cagliari), Italy.
2
Department of Pharmacology, Yale University Medical School, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.
3
Dipartimento di Scienze della Salute, Università "Magna Græcia" di Catanzaro, Campus "S. Venuta", Viale Europa, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy.

Abstract

In the continuous effort to identify new HIV-1 inhibitors endowed with innovative mechanisms, the dual inhibition of different viral functions would provide a significant advantage against drug-resistant variants. The HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT)-associated ribonuclease H (RNase H) is the only viral-encoded enzymatic activity that still lacks an efficient inhibitor. We synthesized a library of 3,5-diamino-N-aryl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbothioamide and 4-amino-5-benzoyl-N-phenyl-2-(substituted-amino)-1H-pyrrole-3-carbothioamide derivatives and tested them against RNase H activity. We identified the pyrazolecarbothioamide derivative A15, able to inhibit viral replication and both RNase H and RNA-dependent DNA polymerase (RDDP) RT-associated activities in the low micromolar range. Docking simulations hypothesized its binding to two RT pockets. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments showed that, with respect to wt RT, V108A substitution strongly reduced A15 IC50 values (12.6-fold for RNase H inhibition and 4.7-fold for RDDP), while substitution A502F caused a 9.0-fold increase in its IC50 value for RNase H, not affecting the RDDP inhibition, reinforcing the hypothesis of a dual-site inhibition. Moreover, A15 retained good inhibition potency against three non-nucleoside RT inhibitor (NNRTI)-resistant enzymes, confirming a mode of action unrelated to NNRTIs and suggesting its potential as a lead compound for development of new HIV-1 RT dual inhibitors active against drug-resistant viruses.

KEYWORDS:

HIV-1 ribonuclease H; HIV-1 therapeutic agents; RT dual inhibitors; heteroarylcarbothioamide

PMID:
28859311
PMCID:
PMC6433301
DOI:
10.1093/femspd/ftx078
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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