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J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 2017 Aug 18;19(1):63. doi: 10.1186/s12968-017-0375-1.

T1-refBlochi: high resolution 3D post-contrast T1 myocardial mapping based on a single 3D late gadolinium enhancement volume, Bloch equations, and a reference T1.

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Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, 06520, USA.
Department of Internal Medicine (Cardiology), Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, 06520, USA.
Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, 06520, USA.



High resolution 3D T1 mapping is important for assessment of diffuse myocardial fibrosis in left atrium or other thin-walled structures. In this work, we investigated a fast single-TI 3D high resolution T1 mapping method that directly transforms a 3D late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) volume to a 3D T1 map.


The proposed method, T1-refBlochi, is based on Bloch equation modeling of the LGE signal, a single-point calibration, and assumptions that proton density and T2* are relatively uniform in the heart. Several sources of error of this method were analyzed mathematically and with simulations. Imaging was performed in phantoms, eight swine and five patients, comparing T1-refBlochi to a standard spin-echo T1 mapping, 3D multi-TI T1 mapping, and 2D ShMOLLI, respectively.


The method has a good accuracy and adequate precision, even considering various sources of error. In phantoms, over a range of protocols, heart-rates and T1 s, the bias ±1SD was -3 ms ± 9 ms. The porcine studies showed excellent agreement between T1-refBlochi and the multi-TI method (bias ±1SD = -6 ± 22 ms). The proton density and T2* weightings yielded ratios for scar/blood of 0.94 ± 0.01 and for myocardium/blood of 1.03 ± 0.02 in the eight swine, confirming that sufficient uniformity of proton density and T2* weightings exists among heterogeneous tissues of the heart. In the patients, the mean T1 bias ±1SD in myocardium and blood between T1-refBlochi and ShMOLLI was -9 ms ± 21 ms.


T1-refBlochi provides a fast single-TI high resolution 3D T1 map of the heart with good accuracy and adequate precision.


3D cardiac T1 mapping; Late gadolinium enhancement; Left atrial fibrosis; Single-TI T1 mapping

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