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Pediatr Obes. 2018 Jun;13(6):342-347. doi: 10.1111/ijpo.12228. Epub 2017 Jul 20.

Traffic-related air pollution associations with cytokeratin-18, a marker of hepatocellular apoptosis, in an overweight and obese paediatric population.

Author information

1
Division of Environmental Health, Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
2
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT, USA.
3
Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA, USA.
4
Department of Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Traffic-related air pollution causes fatty liver, inflammation and fibrosis in animal models, but there have been few studies in humans.

OBJECTIVES:

To test the hypothesis that traffic-related air pollution causes non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and increased markers for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH); and that NAFLD increases liver susceptibility to increased NASH risk.

METHODS:

Data collected prospectively from 74 overweight or obese children were obtained from the Yale Pediatric Obesity Clinic. Traffic-related air pollution was characterized as vehicle traffic volume on major roads within a 1 km residential buffer, and as residential nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) exposure. Outcomes were hepatic fat fraction (HFF) measured by magnetic resonance imaging, liver enzymes using standard assays and plasma cytokeratin-18 (CK-18) by immunosorbent assays.

RESULTS:

Significant non-linear relationships with air pollution and CK-18 were found. Plasma CK-18 at follow-up increased from approximately 150 U/L to almost 200 U/L as residential traffic volume increased from 220 000 vehicle-km to 330 000 vehicle-km, after adjustment for baseline CK-18, age and gender. Among patients with NAFLD at baseline, CK-18 increased from 140 U/L to 200 U/L (a 1.5 standard deviation increase in CK-18) as NO2 increased from 8 to 10 ppb.

CONCLUSIONS:

Traffic-related air pollution was associated with CK-18. Effects were larger in children with pre-existing NAFLD at study entry.

KEYWORDS:

Air pollution; CK-18; NAFLD; liver; traffic volume

PMID:
28730729
PMCID:
PMC5775922
[Available on 2019-06-01]
DOI:
10.1111/ijpo.12228

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