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Eur Urol. 2017 Nov;72(5):738-744. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2017.06.020. Epub 2017 Jul 5.

Brachytherapy Boost Utilization and Survival in Unfavorable-risk Prostate Cancer.

Author information

1
Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.
2
Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA; Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.
3
Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA. Electronic address: sameer.nath@yale.edu.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

There are limited comparative survival data for prostate cancer (PCa) patients managed with a low-dose rate brachytherapy (LDR-B) boost and dose-escalated external-beam radiotherapy (DE-EBRT) alone.

OBJECTIVE:

To compare overall survival (OS) for men with unfavorable PCa between LDR-B and DE-EBRT groups.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:

Using the National Cancer Data Base, we identified men with unfavorable PCa treated between 2004 and 2012 with androgen suppression (AS) and either EBRT followed by LDR-B or DE-EBRT (75.6-86.4Gy).

OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS:

Treatment selection was evaluated using logistic regression and annual percentage proportions. OS was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test, Cox proportional hazards, and propensity score matching.

RESULTS AND LIMITATION:

We identified 25038 men between 2004 and 2012, during which LDR-B boost utilization decreased from 29% to 14%. LDR-B was associated with better OS on univariate (7-yr OS: 82% vs 73%; p<0.001) and multivariate analyses (hazard ratio [HR] 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64-0.77). Propensity score matching verified an OS benefit associated with LDR-B boost (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.66-0.89). The OS benefit of LDR-B boost persisted when limited to men aged <60 yr with no comorbidities. On subset analysis, there was no interaction between treatment and age, risk group, or radiation dose. Limitations include the retrospective design, nonrandomized selection bias, and the absence of treatment toxicity, hormone duration, and cancer-specific outcomes.

CONCLUSIONS:

Between 2004 and 2012, LDR-B boost utilization declined and was associated with better OS compared to DE-EBRT alone. LDR-B boost is probably the ideal treatment option for men with unfavorable PCa, pending long-term results of randomized trials.

PATIENT SUMMARY:

We compared radiotherapy utilization and survival for prostate cancer (PCa) patients using a national database. We found that low-dose rate brachytherapy (LDR-B) boost, a method being used less frequently, was associated with better overall survival when compared to dose-escalated external-beam radiotherapy alone for men with unfavorable PCa. Randomized trials are needed to confirm that LDR-B boost is the ideal treatment.

KEYWORDS:

Androgen suppression; Dose-escalated external-beam radiation therapy; Low-dose rate brachytherapy boost; Unfavorable prostate cancer

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