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Diabetes Technol Ther. 2017 Jun;19(6):363-369. doi: 10.1089/dia.2016.0375. Epub 2017 Jun 5.

Insulin Pump Use in Young Children with Type 1 Diabetes: Sociodemographic Factors and Parent-Reported Barriers.

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1 Joslin Diabetes Center , Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
2 Jaeb Center for Health Research , Tampa, Florida.
3 Indiana University School of Medicine , Indianapolis, Indiana.
4 Baylor College of Medicine , Houston, Texas.
5 Yale School of Medicine , New Haven, Connecticut.



Managing type 1 diabetes (T1D) in young children presents challenges to families and caregivers. Pump therapy may reduce challenges and benefit glycemic control. However, pump use is not universal; parent-reported reasons for lack of uptake are not well described.


Parents of children <7, with T1D for ≥1 year, in the T1D Exchange registry completed surveys capturing demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as barriers to pump use. Data from pump users were compared to nonusers, and barriers were analyzed among parents who received pump recommendations, but decided against uptake.


Young children (N = 515) from 41 sites were identified (mean age 5.2 ± 1.2 years, diabetes duration 2.4 ± 1.0 years, 46% female, and 78% Non-Hispanic White). Overall glycemic control was suboptimal (HbA1c 8.1% ± 1.0%). The majority were pump users (64%, n = 331; nonusers 36%, n = 184). Pump users had longer T1D duration (2.5 ± 1.1 years vs. 2.2 ± 1.0 years, P = 0.001), were more likely to have annual household incomes ≥$75,000 (62% vs. 36%, P < 0.001), have a parent with college education or higher (70% vs. 45%, P < 0.001), perform more frequent blood glucose monitoring (7.5 ± 2.5 times/day vs. 6.5 ± 2.3 times/day, P < 0.001), and use continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) (45% vs. 13%, P < 0.001). Only income, education, frequency of blood glucose monitoring, and CGM use remained significant in a multivariate model including age, sex, ethnicity, and duration of diabetes. Barriers to pump uptake included concerns with physical interference, therapeutic effectiveness, and to a lesser extent, financial burden.


These findings provide an opportunity to address potentially modifiable parent-reported barriers to pump uptake through education and behavioral intervention.


Barriers; Insulin pump adoption; Insulin pump use; Young children


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