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Phys Med Biol. 2017 Jun 21;62(12):4741-4755. doi: 10.1088/1361-6560/aa700c. Epub 2017 May 18.

Data-driven event-by-event respiratory motion correction using TOF PET list-mode centroid of distribution.

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Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, CT, United States of America.


Data-driven respiratory gating techniques were developed to correct for respiratory motion in PET studies, without the help of external motion tracking systems. Due to the greatly increased image noise in gated reconstructions, it is desirable to develop a data-driven event-by-event respiratory motion correction method. In this study, using the Centroid-of-distribution (COD) algorithm, we established a data-driven event-by-event respiratory motion correction technique using TOF PET list-mode data, and investigated its performance by comparing with an external system-based correction method. Ten human scans with the pancreatic β-cell tracer 18F-FP-(+)-DTBZ were employed. Data-driven respiratory motions in superior-inferior (SI) and anterior-posterior (AP) directions were first determined by computing the centroid of all radioactive events during each short time frame with further processing. The Anzai belt system was employed to record respiratory motion in all studies. COD traces in both SI and AP directions were first compared with Anzai traces by computing the Pearson correlation coefficients. Then, respiratory gated reconstructions based on either COD or Anzai traces were performed to evaluate their relative performance in capturing respiratory motion. Finally, based on correlations of displacements of organ locations in all directions and COD information, continuous 3D internal organ motion in SI and AP directions was calculated based on COD traces to guide event-by-event respiratory motion correction in the MOLAR reconstruction framework. Continuous respiratory correction results based on COD were compared with that based on Anzai, and without motion correction. Data-driven COD traces showed a good correlation with Anzai in both SI and AP directions for the majority of studies, with correlation coefficients ranging from 63% to 89%. Based on the determined respiratory displacements of pancreas between end-expiration and end-inspiration from gated reconstructions, there was no significant difference between COD-based and Anzai-based methods. Finally, data-driven COD-based event-by-event respiratory motion correction yielded comparable results to that based on Anzai respiratory traces, in terms of contrast recovery and reduced motion-induced blur. Data-driven event-by-event respiratory motion correction using COD showed significant image quality improvement compared with reconstructions with no motion correction, and gave comparable results to the Anzai-based method.

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