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Clin Chest Med. 2017 Jun;38(2):177-186. doi: 10.1016/j.ccm.2016.12.002. Epub 2017 Mar 2.

Pulmonary Manifestations of Solid Non-Pulmonary Malignancies.

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Yale University School of Medicine, 15 York Street, LCI 100, New Haven, CT 06510, USA. Electronic address:


The lungs are a common site of metastatic disease. Pulmonary metastases develop due to local blood flow and cellular or biochemical properties of tumor cells. Metastases develop from any type of malignancy and may occur via hematogenous, lymphatic, aerogenous, and/or direct spread. Metastatic disease may present with symptoms indistinguishable from primary lung cancer, including dyspnea, hemoptysis, and chest pain. Radiographically, these may present as parenchymal lung disease, mediastinal lymphadenopathy, airway obstruction, or pleural and vascular disease. No part of the thorax is spared from metastatic potential. This review highlights complications of non-pulmonary solid malignancies based on sites of anatomic metastases.


Complications; Metastatic disease; Pulmonary metastases; Solid malignancies

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