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J Nutr Biochem. 2017 May;43:98-106. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2017.02.002. Epub 2017 Feb 10.

Improvement of cardiometabolic markers after fish oil intervention in young Mexican adults and the role of PPARα L162V and PPARγ2 P12A.

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Nestlé Research Center, Switzerland.
Instituto Nacional de Medicina Genómica (INMEGEN), Mexico City, Mexico.
Unidad de Vinculación de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico en el INMEGEN, Mexico City, Mexico.
Nestlé Institute of Health Sciences, Lausanne, Switzerland.
Departamento de Salud, Universidad Iberoamericana, Mexico City, Mexico.
Institut des Maladies Metaboliques et Cardiovasculaires, Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale (INSERM), Toulouse, France.
Departamento de Inmunología, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez, Mexico City, Mexico.
Hospital General de México Eduardo Liceaga, Mexico City, Mexico.
Nestlé Institute of Health Sciences, Lausanne, Switzerland; Systems Biology in Nutrition and Health, The Liggins Institute, The University of Auckland, New Zealand.
Instituto Nacional de Medicina Genómica (INMEGEN), Mexico City, Mexico. Electronic address:


Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) contained in fish oil (FO) are ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) that may induce changes in cardiometabolic markers. Variation in PPAR genes may influence the beneficial responses linked to FO supplementation in young adults. The study aimed to analyze the effect of FO supplementation on glucose metabolism, circulating lipids and inflammation according to PPARα L162V and PPARγ2 P12A genotypes in young Mexican adults. 191 young, non-smoking subjects between 18 and 40 years were included in a one-arm study. Participants were supplemented with 2.7 g/day of EPA+DHA, during six weeks. Dietary analysis, body composition measurements and indicators for glucose metabolism, circulating lipids, and markers for inflammation were analyzed before and after intervention. An overall decrease in triglycerides (TG) and an increase in HS-ω3 index were observed in all subjects [-4.1 mg/dL, (SD:±51.7), P=.02 and 2.6%, (SD:±1.2), P<.001 respectively]. Mean fasting insulin and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c%) were significantly decreased in all subjects [-0.547mlU/L, (SD:±10.29), P=.034 and-0.07%, (SD:±0.3), P<.001 respectively], whereas there was no change in body composition, fasting glucose, adiponectin and inflammatory markers. Subjects carrying the minor alleles of PPARα L162V and PPARγ2 P12A had higher responses in reduction of TG and fasting insulin respectively. Interestingly, doses below 2.7 g/day (1.8 g/day) were sufficient to induce a significant reduction in fasting insulin and HbA1c% from baseline (P=.019 and P<.001). The observed responses in triglycerides and fasting insulin in the Mexican population give further evidence of the importance of FO supplementation in young people as an early step towards the prevention of cardiometabolic disease.



Epistasis; Fish Oil; PPARα L162V; PPARγ2 P12A; PUFA

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