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Clin Cancer Res. 2017 Aug 1;23(15):4046-4054. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-16-2339. Epub 2017 Mar 9.

A Phase I/Ib Study of Enzalutamide Alone and in Combination with Endocrine Therapies in Women with Advanced Breast Cancer.

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West Cancer Center, Memphis, Tennessee.
Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Nashville, Tennessee.
Tennessee Oncology, PLLC, Nashville, Tennessee.
Division of Medical Oncology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado.
Florida Cancer Specialists, Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Sarasota, Florida.
Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.
Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.
Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York.
Medivation, Inc. (Medivation, Inc., was acquired by Pfizer, Inc., in September 2016), San Francisco, California.
Astellas Pharma, Inc., Northbrook, Illinois.
Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.


Purpose: Several lines of evidence support targeting the androgen signaling pathway in breast cancer. Enzalutamide is a potent inhibitor of androgen receptor signaling. Preclinical data in estrogen-expressing breast cancer models demonstrated activity of enzalutamide monotherapy and enhanced activity when combined with various endocrine therapies (ET). Enzalutamide is a strong cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) inducer, and ETs are commonly metabolized by CYP3A4. The pharmacokinetic (PK) interactions, safety, and tolerability of enzalutamide monotherapy and in combination with ETs were assessed in this phase I/Ib study.Experimental Design: Enzalutamide monotherapy was assessed in dose-escalation and dose-expansion cohorts of patients with advanced breast cancer. Additional cohorts examined effects of enzalutamide on anastrozole, exemestane, and fulvestrant PK in patients with estrogen receptor-positive/progesterone receptor-positive (ER+/PgR+) breast cancer.Results: Enzalutamide monotherapy (n = 29) or in combination with ETs (n = 70) was generally well tolerated. Enzalutamide PK in women was similar to prior data on PK in men with prostate cancer. Enzalutamide decreased plasma exposure to anastrozole by approximately 90% and exemestane by approximately 50%. Enzalutamide did not significantly affect fulvestrant PK. Exposure of exemestane 50 mg/day given with enzalutamide was similar to exemestane 25 mg/day alone.Conclusions: These results support a 160 mg/day enzalutamide dose in women with breast cancer. Enzalutamide can be given in combination with fulvestrant without dose modifications. Exemestane should be doubled from 25 mg/day to 50 mg/day when given in combination with enzalutamide; this combination is being investigated in a randomized phase II study in patients with ER+/PgR+ breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 23(15); 4046-54. ©2017 AACR.

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