Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Physiol Rep. 2017 Feb;5(4). pii: e13113. doi: 10.14814/phy2.13113. Epub 2017 Feb 27.

Muscle and liver glycogen utilization during prolonged lift and carry exercise: male and female responses.

Author information

Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut
School of Arts and Sciences, University of Bridgeport, Bridgeport, Connecticut.
Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.
School of Naturopathic Medicine, University of Bridgeport, Bridgeport, Connecticut.


This study examined the use of carbohydrates by men and women during lift/carry exercise. Effects of menstrual cycle variation were examined in women. Twenty-five subjects (15 M, 10 F) were studied; age 25 ± 2y M, 26 ± 3y F, weight 85 ± 3 kg* M, 63 ± 3 kg F, and height 181 ± 2 cm* M, 161 ± 2 cm F (* P < 0.0001). During exercise subjects squatted to floor level and lifted a 30 kg box, carried it 3 m, and placed it on a shelf 132 cm high 3X/min over a 3-hour period (540 lifts) or until they could not continue. Males were studied in a single session, females were studied on separate occasions (during the luteal (L) and follicular (F) menstrual phases). The protocol was identical for both sexes and on both occasions in the female group. Glycogen utilization was tracked with natural abundance C-13 NMR of quadriceps femoris and biceps brachialis muscles, and in the liver at rest and throughout the exercise period. Males completed more of the 180 min protocol than females [166 ± 9 min M, 112 ± 16 min* F (L), 88 ± 16 min** F (F) (*P = 0.0036, **P < 0.0001)]. Quadriceps glycogen depletion was similar between sexes and within females in L/F phases [4.7 ± 0.8 mmol/L-h M, 4.5 ± 2.4 mmol/L-h F (L), 10.3 ± 3.5 mmol/L-h F (F)]. Biceps glycogen depletion was greater in females [2.7 ± 0.9 mmol/L-h M, 10.3 ± 1.3 mmol/L-h* F (L), 16.8 ± 4.8 mmol/L-h** F (F) (* P = 0.0004, ** P = 0.0122)]. Resting glycogen levels were higher in females during the follicular phase (P = 0.0077). Liver glycogen depletion increased during exercise, but was not significant. We conclude that with non-normalized lift/carry exercise: (1) Based on their smaller size, women are less capable of completing and work their upper body harder than men. (2) Women and men work their lower body at similar levels. (3) Women store more quadriceps carbohydrate during the follicular phase. (4) The liver is not significantly challenged by this protocol.


13C‐NMR; lift/carry exercise; liver glycogen; menstrual cycle; muscle glycogen

PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center