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JAMA Oncol. 2017 May 1;3(5):636-651. doi: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2016.5945.

Association Between Telomere Length and Risk of Cancer and Non-Neoplastic Diseases: A Mendelian Randomization Study.

Telomeres Mendelian Randomization Collaboration, Haycock PC1, Burgess S2, Nounu A1, Zheng J1, Okoli GN3, Bowden J1, Wade KH1, Timpson NJ1, Evans DM4, Willeit P5, Aviv A6, Gaunt TR1, Hemani G1, Mangino M7, Ellis HP8, Kurian KM8, Pooley KA9, Eeles RA10, Lee JE11, Fang S11, Chen WV12, Law MH13, Bowdler LM14, Iles MM15, Yang Q16, Worrall BB17, Markus HS18, Hung RJ19, Amos CI20, Spurdle AB21, Thompson DJ9, O'Mara TA21, Wolpin B22, Amundadottir L23, Stolzenberg-Solomon R24, Trichopoulou A25, Onland-Moret NC26, Lund E27, Duell EJ28, Canzian F29, Severi G30, Overvad K31, Gunter MJ32, Tumino R33, Svenson U34, van Rij A35, Baas AF36, Bown MJ37, Samani NJ37, van t'Hof FNG38, Tromp G39, Jones GT35, Kuivaniemi H39, Elmore JR40, Johansson M41, Mckay J42, Scelo G41, Carreras-Torres R41, Gaborieau V41, Brennan P41, Bracci PM43, Neale RE14, Olson SH44, Gallinger S45, Li D46, Petersen GM47, Risch HA48, Klein AP49, Han J50, Abnet CC51, Freedman ND51, Taylor PR51, Maris JM52, Aben KK53, Kiemeney LA54, Vermeulen SH54, Wiencke JK55, Walsh KM55, Wrensch M55, Rice T56, Turnbull C57, Litchfield K58, Paternoster L1, Standl M59, Abecasis GR60, SanGiovanni JP61, Li Y62, Mijatovic V63, Sapkota Y14, Low SK64, Zondervan KT65, Montgomery GW14, Nyholt DR66, van Heel DA67, Hunt K67, Arking DE68, Ashar FN68, Sotoodehnia N69, Woo D70, Rosand J71, Comeau ME72, Brown WM72, Silverman EK73, Hokanson JE74, Cho MH73, Hui J75, Ferreira MA14, Thompson PJ76, Morrison AC77, Felix JF78, Smith NL79, Christiano AM80, Petukhova L81, Betz RC82, Fan X83, Zhang X83, Zhu C83, Langefeld CD72, Thompson SD84, Wang F85, Lin X85, Schwartz DA86, Fingerlin T87, Rotter JI88, Cotch MF89, Jensen RA90, Munz M91, Dommisch H92, Schaefer AS92, Han F93, Ollila HM94, Hillary RP94, Albagha O95, Ralston SH96, Zeng C97, Zheng W97, Shu XO97, Reis A98, Uebe S98, Hüffmeier U98, Kawamura Y99, Otowa T100, Sasaki T101, Hibberd ML102, Davila S103, Xie G104, Siminovitch K104, Bei JX105, Zeng YX106, Försti A107, Chen B108, Landi S109, Franke A110, Fischer A111, Ellinghaus D112, Flores C113, Noth I114, Ma SF114, Foo JN115, Liu J115, Kim JW116, Cox DG117, Delattre O118, Mirabeau O118, Skibola CF119, Tang CS120, Garcia-Barcelo M120, Chang KP121, Su WH122, Chang YS123, Martin NG14, Gordon S14, Wade TD124, Lee C125, Kubo M126, Cha PC127, Nakamura Y128, Levy D129, Kimura M6, Hwang SJ129, Hunt S130, Spector T131, Soranzo N132, Manichaikul AW133, Barr RG134, Kahali B135, Speliotes E135, Yerges-Armstrong LM136, Cheng CY137, Jonas JB138, Wong TY137, Fogh I139, Lin K139, Powell JF139, Rice K140, Relton CL1, Martin RM141, Davey Smith G1.

Author information

1
MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol, England2School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, England.
2
Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England.
3
School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, England.
4
MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol, England2School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, England4University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, Translational Research Institute, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
5
Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England5Department of Neurology, Innsbruck Medical University, Austria.
6
Center of Human Development and Aging, Department of Pediatrics, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey.
7
Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, London England8NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at Guy's and St Thomas' Foundation Trust, London, England.
8
Brain Tumour Research Group, Institute of Clinical Neuroscience, Learning and Research Building, Southmead Hospital, University of Bristol.
9
Centre for Cancer Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England.
10
The Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London, England.
11
Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston.
12
Department of Clinical Applications & Support, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston.
13
Statistical Genetics, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Australia.
14
QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Australia.
15
Section of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Leeds Institute of Cancer and Pathology, University of Leeds, Leeds, England.
16
Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.
17
Departments of Neurology and Public Health Sciences, University of Virginia Charlottesville, Virginia.
18
Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, England.
19
Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute of Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada21Division of Epidemiology, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
20
Geisel School of Medicine, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire.
21
Genetics and Computational Biology Division, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Australia.
22
Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts.
23
Laboratory of Translational Genomics, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.
24
Metabolic Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland.
25
Hellenic Health Foundation, Athens, Greece28WHO Collaborating Center for Nutrition and Health, Unit of Nutritional Epidemiology and Nutrition in Public Health, Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, University of Athens Medical School, Athens, Greece.
26
Department of Epidemiology, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center, Utrecht, the Netherlands.
27
Institute of Community Medicine, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromso, Norway.
28
Unit of Nutrition and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research Program, Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL), Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.
29
Genomic Epidemiology Group, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.
30
Université Paris-Saclay, Université Paris-Sud, UVSQ, CESP, INSERM, Villejuif, France34Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France35Human Genetics Foundation (HuGeF), Torino, Italy36Cancer Council Victoria and University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.
31
Department of Public Health, Section for Epidemiology, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
32
School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, England.
33
Cancer Registry, Azienda Ospedaliera "Civile M.P. Arezzo," Ragusa, Italy.
34
Department of Medical Biosciences, Umea University, Umea, Sweden.
35
Surgery Department, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
36
Department of Genetics, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands.
37
Department of Cardiovascular Sciences and the NIHR Leicester, Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit, University of Leicester, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester, England.
38
Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands.
39
Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa46The Sigfried and Janet Weis Center for Research, Geisinger Health System, Danville, Pennsylvania.
40
Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Geisinger Health System, Danville, Pennsylvania.
41
Genetic Epidemiology Group, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France.
42
Genetic Cancer Susceptibility Group, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France.
43
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California San Francisco.
44
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.
45
Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute of Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
46
Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston.
47
Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota.
48
Yale School of Public Health, Yale School of Medicine, and Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, Connecticut.
49
Departments of Oncology, Pathology and Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.
50
Department of Epidemiology, Fairbanks School of Public Health, Indiana University, Indianapolis57Indiana University Melvin and Bren Simon Cancer Center, Indianapolis.
51
Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland.
52
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania.
53
Radboud University Medical Center, Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Nijmegen, The Netherlands61Netherlands Comprehensive Cancer Organization, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
54
Radboud University Medical Center, Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
55
Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California63Institute of Human Genetics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California.
56
Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California.
57
The Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London, England64William Harvey Research Institute, Queen Mary University, London, England.
58
Division of Genetics and Epidemiology, The Institute of Cancer Research, London, England.
59
Institute of Epidemiology I, Helmholtz Zentrum München - German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany.
60
Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
61
National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Laboratory of Membrane Biophysics and Biochemistry, Section on Nutritional Neuroscience, Bethesda, Maryland69Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown School of Medicine, Washington, DC.
62
Division of Genetic Epidemiology, Institute for Medical Biometry and Statistics, Faculty of Medicine, and Medical Centre, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.
63
Department of Life and Reproduction Sciences, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.
64
Laboratory of Statistical Analysis, Centre for Integrative Medical Sciences, The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Yokohama, Japan.
65
Genetic and Genomic Epidemiology Unit, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, England74Nuffield Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, England.
66
QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Australia75Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.
67
Blizard Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 2AT, England.
68
McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.
69
Division of Cardiology and Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.
70
University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Cincinnati, Ohio.
71
Massachusetts General Hospital, Neurology, Center for Human Genetic Research, Boston, Massachusetts.
72
Center for Public Health Genomics, Department of Biostatistical Sciences, Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina.
73
Channing Division of Network Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.
74
Department of Epidemiology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado.
75
Busselton Population Medical Research Institute Inc, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, Australia85PathWest Laboratory Medicine of Western Australia, Perth, Australia86School of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia87School of Population Health, University of WA, Perth, Australia.
76
The Lung Health Clinic and Institute for Respiratory Health, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia.
77
Department of Epidemiology, Human Genetics, and Environmental Sciences, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston.
78
Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
79
Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle.
80
Departments of Dermatology and Genetics & Development, Columbia University, New York, New York.
81
Departments of Dermatology and Epidemiology, Columbia University, New York, New York.
82
Institute of Human Genetics, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
83
Institute of Dermatology & Department of Dermatology, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China.
84
Center for Autoimmune Genomics and Etiology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio.
85
Key Laboratory of Nutrition and Metabolism, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.
86
Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Colorado, Aurora.
87
Department of Biomedical Research, National Jewish Health Hospital, Denver, Colorado.
88
Institute for Translational Genomics and Population Sciences, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, California101Departments of Pediatrics and Medicine, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, California.
89
Epidemiology Branch, Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications, Intramural Research Program, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Clinical Research Center, Bethesda, Maryland.
90
Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, University of Washington, Seattle104Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle.
91
Department of Periodontology and Synoptic Dentistry, Center for Dental and Craniofacial Sciences, Charité - University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany106Institute for Integrative and Experimental Genomics, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany.
92
Department of Periodontology and Synoptic Dentistry, Center for Dental and Craniofacial Sciences, Charité - University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
93
Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing, China.
94
Stanford University, Center for Sleep Sciences, Palo Alto, California.
95
Qatar Biomedical Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Doha, Qatar110Centre for Genomic and Experimental Medicine, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, Scotland.
96
Centre for Genomic and Experimental Medicine, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, Scotland.
97
Division of Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee.
98
Institute of Human Genetics, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.
99
Department of Psychiatry, Shonan Kamakura General Hospital, Kanagawa, Japan.
100
Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan115Graduate School of Clinical Psychology, Teikyo Heisei University Major of Professional Clinical Psychology, Tokyo, Japan.
101
Department of Physical and Health Education, Graduate School of Education, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
102
Infectious Diseases, Genome Institute of Singapore, Singapore.
103
Human Genetics, Genome Institute of Singapore, Singapore.
104
Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute of Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada119Departments of Medicine, Immunology, Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
105
Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, China.
106
Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, China121Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.
107
Molecular Genetic Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany123Center for Primary Health Care Research, Clinical Research Center, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
108
Molecular Genetic Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.
109
Department of Biology, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.
110
University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany.
111
University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany126Institute of Clinical Molecular Biology, Kiel University, Kiel, Germany.
112
Institute of Clinical Molecular Biology, Kiel University, Kiel, Germany.
113
Research Unit, Hospital Universitario N.S. de Candelaria, Universidad de La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain128CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.
114
Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.
115
Human Genetics, Genome Institute of Singapore, A*STAR, Singapore.
116
Department of Laboratory Medicine and Genetics, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan, University School of Medicine, Gangnam-gu, Seoul, South Korea.
117
Cancer Research Center of Lyon, INSERM U1052, Lyon, France.
118
Inserm U830, Institut Curie, PSL University, Paris, France.
119
Department of Epidemiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham.
120
Department of Surgery, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
121
Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Lin-Kou, Taoyuan, Taiwan.
122
Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Lin-Kou, Taoyuan, Taiwan137Department of Biomedical Sciences, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Molecular Medicine Research Center, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan.
123
Molecular Medicine Research Center, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan.
124
School of Psychology, Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia.
125
School of Systems Biomedical Science, Soongsil University, Dongjak-gu, Seoul, South Korea.
126
RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Science, Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan.
127
Division of Molecular Brain Science, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kusunoki-chou, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Japan.
128
Center for Personalized Therapeutics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.
129
The NHLBI's Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, Massachusetts, Population Sciences Branch of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, Maryland.
130
Department of Genetic Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine in Qatar, Doha, Qatar.
131
Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, London England.
132
Human Genetics, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Genome Campus, Hinxton Cambridge, England.
133
Center for Public Health Genomics, Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville.
134
Department of Medicine and Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York.
135
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Department of Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
136
Department of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore.
137
Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Center, Singapore152Department of Ophthalmology, National University of Singapore and National University Health System, Singapore153Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore.
138
Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing Ophthalmology and Visual Science Key Laboratory, Beijing, China155Department of Ophthalmology, Medical Faculty Mannheim of the Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany.
139
Department of Basic and Clinical Neuroscience, Maurice Wohl Clinical Neuroscience Institute, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, England.
140
Department of Biostatistics, University of Washington, Seattle.
141
MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol, England2School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, England158University of Bristol/University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust National Institute for Health Research Bristol Nutrition Biomedical Research Unit, Bristol, England.

Abstract

Importance:

The causal direction and magnitude of the association between telomere length and incidence of cancer and non-neoplastic diseases is uncertain owing to the susceptibility of observational studies to confounding and reverse causation.

Objective:

To conduct a Mendelian randomization study, using germline genetic variants as instrumental variables, to appraise the causal relevance of telomere length for risk of cancer and non-neoplastic diseases.

Data Sources:

Genomewide association studies (GWAS) published up to January 15, 2015.

Study Selection:

GWAS of noncommunicable diseases that assayed germline genetic variation and did not select cohort or control participants on the basis of preexisting diseases. Of 163 GWAS of noncommunicable diseases identified, summary data from 103 were available.

Data Extraction and Synthesis:

Summary association statistics for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are strongly associated with telomere length in the general population.

Main Outcomes and Measures:

Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for disease per standard deviation (SD) higher telomere length due to germline genetic variation.

Results:

Summary data were available for 35 cancers and 48 non-neoplastic diseases, corresponding to 420 081 cases (median cases, 2526 per disease) and 1 093 105 controls (median, 6789 per disease). Increased telomere length due to germline genetic variation was generally associated with increased risk for site-specific cancers. The strongest associations (ORs [95% CIs] per 1-SD change in genetically increased telomere length) were observed for glioma, 5.27 (3.15-8.81); serous low-malignant-potential ovarian cancer, 4.35 (2.39-7.94); lung adenocarcinoma, 3.19 (2.40-4.22); neuroblastoma, 2.98 (1.92-4.62); bladder cancer, 2.19 (1.32-3.66); melanoma, 1.87 (1.55-2.26); testicular cancer, 1.76 (1.02-3.04); kidney cancer, 1.55 (1.08-2.23); and endometrial cancer, 1.31 (1.07-1.61). Associations were stronger for rarer cancers and at tissue sites with lower rates of stem cell division. There was generally little evidence of association between genetically increased telomere length and risk of psychiatric, autoimmune, inflammatory, diabetic, and other non-neoplastic diseases, except for coronary heart disease (OR, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.67-0.90]), abdominal aortic aneurysm (OR, 0.63 [95% CI, 0.49-0.81]), celiac disease (OR, 0.42 [95% CI, 0.28-0.61]) and interstitial lung disease (OR, 0.09 [95% CI, 0.05-0.15]).

Conclusions and Relevance:

It is likely that longer telomeres increase risk for several cancers but reduce risk for some non-neoplastic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases.

PMID:
28241208
PMCID:
PMC5638008
DOI:
10.1001/jamaoncol.2016.5945
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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