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Public Health Nutr. 2017 May;20(7):1235-1247. doi: 10.1017/S1368980016003499. Epub 2017 Feb 6.

Child, maternal and household-level correlates of nutritional status: a cross-sectional study among young Samoan children.

Author information

1
1Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology,Yale School of Public Health,Yale University,60 College Street,New Haven,CT 06520-8034,USA.
2
2University of Michigan School of Public Health,Ann Arbor,MI,USA.
3
3Ministry of Health,Samoa.
4
4Samoa Bureau of Statistics,Samoa.
5
5Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research (IPAN),Deakin University,Melbourne,Australia.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Young children are particularly vulnerable to malnutrition as nutrition transition progresses. The present study aimed to document the prevalence, coexistence and correlates of nutritional status (stunting, overweight/obesity and anaemia) in Samoan children aged 24-59 months.

DESIGN:

A cross-sectional community-based survey. Height and weight were used to determine prevalence of stunting (height-for-age Z-score +2) based on WHO growth standards. Anaemia was determined using an AimStrip Hemoglobin test system (Hb <110 g/l).

SETTING:

Ten villages on the Samoan island of Upolu.

SUBJECTS:

Mother-child pairs (n 305) recruited using convenience sampling.

RESULTS:

Moderate or severe stunting was apparent in 20·3 % of children, 16·1 % were overweight/obese and 34·1 % were anaemic. Among the overweight/obese children, 28·6 % were also stunted and 42·9 % anaemic, indicating dual burden of malnutrition. Stunting was significantly less likely among girls (OR=0·41; 95 % CI 0·21, 0·79, P<0·01) than boys. Overweight/obesity was associated with higher family socio-economic status and decreased sugar intake (OR per 10 g/d=0·89, 95 % CI 0·80, 0·99, P=0·032). The odds of anaemia decreased with age and anaemia was more likely in children with an anaemic mother (OR=2·20; 95 % CI 1·22, 3·98, P=0·007). No child, maternal or household characteristic was associated with more than one of the nutritional status outcomes, highlighting the need for condition-specific interventions in this age group.

CONCLUSIONS:

The observed prevalences of stunting, overweight/obesity and anaemia suggest that it is critical to invest in nutrition and develop health programmes targeting early childhood growth and development in Samoa.

KEYWORDS:

Malnutrition; Nutrition transition; Nutritional status; Obesity; Samoa; Young children

PMID:
28162141
DOI:
10.1017/S1368980016003499
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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