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AIDS Behav. 2017 Aug;21(8):2243-2252. doi: 10.1007/s10461-017-1684-y.

Rates and Covariates of Recent Sexual and Physical Violence Against HIV-Infected Outpatient Drinkers in Western Kenya.

Author information

1
Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, USA. rebecca_papas@brown.edu.
2
School of Medicine, Moi University College of Health Sciences, Eldoret, Kenya.
3
Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH), Eldoret, Kenya.
4
Brown University School of Public Health, Providence, RI, USA.
5
Arizona Department of Health Services, Phoenix, AZ, USA.
6
Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.
7
Edify Youth, Minneapolis, MN, USA.
8
Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA.
9
Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, USA.

Abstract

Victimization from physical and sexual violence presents global health challenges. Partner violence is higher in Kenya than Africa. Violence against drinkers and HIV-infected individuals is typically elevated, so dual vulnerabilities may further augment risk. Understanding violence risks can improve interventions. Participants were 614 HIV-infected outpatient drinkers in western Kenya enrolled in a randomized trial to reduce alcohol use. At baseline, past 90-day partner physical and sexual violence were examined descriptively and in gender-stratified regression models. We hypothesized higher reported violence against women than men, and positive violence association with HIV stigma and alcohol use across gender. Women reported significantly more current sexual (26.3 vs. 5.7%) and physical (38.9 vs. 24.8%) victimization than men. Rates were generally higher than Kenyan lifetime national averages. In both regression models, HIV stigma and alcohol-related sexual expectations were significantly associated with violence while alcohol use was not. For women, higher violence risk was also conferred by childhood violence, past-year transactional sex, and younger age. HIV-infected Kenyan drinkers, particularly women, endorse high current violence due to multiple risk factors. Findings have implications for HIV interventions. Longitudinal research is needed to understand development of risk.

KEYWORDS:

Alcohol; HIV; Kenya; Physical violence; Sexual violence; Transactional sex

PMID:
28097617
PMCID:
PMC5513791
[Available on 2018-08-01]
DOI:
10.1007/s10461-017-1684-y
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