Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Eat Behav. 2017 Jan;24:61-65. doi: 10.1016/j.eatbeh.2016.12.009. Epub 2016 Dec 21.

Examining the effects of cigarette smoking on food cravings and intake, depressive symptoms, and stress.

Author information

University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing, Philadelphia, PA, United States; University of Pennsylvania Center for Weight and Eating Disorders, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, United States. Electronic address:
Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States; Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT, United States.
Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States; Department of Psychology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, United States; National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse, New Haven, CT, United States.
Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States; Yale Stress Center, New Haven, CT, United States.



This study examined the relationships among smoking status and total and specific types of food cravings (i.e., high-fats, sweets, fast-food fats, and complex carbohydrates/starches) and the influence of demographic, clinical, and psychological factors on this relationship.


Seven-hundred and twelve adults completed measures of food cravings, dietary intake, and smoking history. Heights and weights were measured. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate analyses while adjusting for demographic, clinical, and psychological covariates.


Compared to never smokers, current smokers reported more frequent cravings for high-fat foods and fast-food fats, after controlling for depression, stress, BMI and demographic factors. Current smokers also reported consuming more high-fat foods and fast-food fats. The association between cigarette smoking and total food craving was no longer significant after accounting for depression and stress, suggesting that depression and stress may account for the relationship between smoking and total food craving. Smoking did not moderate the relationship between food cravings and food intake. Nicotine dependence was positively correlated with the frequency of general food cravings and cravings for high fats, sweets, and carbohydrates/starches.


Cigarette smokers, and especially those with higher nicotine dependence, may have greater difficulties in addressing food craving and changing eating habits, particularly in the context of depression and stress.


Food cravings; Obesity; Smoking

[Available on 2018-01-01]
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Support Center