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Sci Total Environ. 2017 Feb 15;580:1276-1286. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.12.090. Epub 2016 Dec 22.

Comparison of industrial emissions and carpet dust concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in a multi-center U.S. study.

Author information

1
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Yale School of Public Health, 60 College St., New Haven, CT 06510, United States; Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Department of Health and Human Services, 9609 Medical Center Dr, Rockville, MD 20850, United States. Electronic address: nicole.deziel@yale.edu.
2
Emeritus Professor Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Colorado State University, 1681 Campus Delivery, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1691, United States; JRN-Environmental Health Sciences, Ltd, 10916 Wickshire Way, North Bethesda, MD 20852, United States.
3
Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Department of Health and Human Services, 9609 Medical Center Dr, Rockville, MD 20850, United States.
4
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Dornsife School of Public Health at Drexel University, 3215 Market St, Philadelphia, PA 19104, United States.
5
TNO, Zeist, The Netherlands.
6
Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Rd, San Antonio, TX, 78238-5166, United States.

Abstract

Proximity to facilities emitting polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) has been associated with increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). There is limited information about whether proximity to industrial sources leads to indoor PCDD/F contamination of homes. We measured carpet dust concentrations (pg/g) of 17 toxic PCDD/F congeners and calculated their toxic equivalence (TEQ) in 100 homes in a population-based case-control study of NHL in Detroit, Los Angeles, Seattle, and Iowa (1998-2000). We took global positioning system readings at residences and obtained coordinates and PCDD/F emissions (ng TEQ/yr) from an Environmental Protection Agency database for 6 facility types: coal-fired electricity generating plants, cement kilns burning non-hazardous waste, hazardous waste incinerators, medical waste incinerators, municipal solid waste incinerators, and sewage sludge incinerators. For each residence, we computed an inverse distance-squared weighted average emission index (AEI [pg TEQ/km2/yr]) for all facilities within 5km from 1983 to 2000. We also computed AEIs for each of the 6 facility types. We evaluated relationships between PCDD/F dust concentrations and the all-facility AEI or categories of facility-type AEIs using multivariable linear regression, adjusting for study center, demographics, and home characteristics. A doubling of the all-facility AEI was associated with a 4-8% increase in PCDD/F dust concentrations of 7 of 17 PCDD/F congeners and the TEQ (p-value<0.1). We also observed positive associations between PCDD/F dust concentrations and facility-type AEIs (highest vs. lowest exposure category) for municipal solid waste incinerators (9 PCDD/F, TEQ), and medical waste incinerators (7 PCDD/F, TEQ) (p<0.1). Our results from diverse geographical areas suggest that industrial PCDD/F emission sources contribute to residential PCDD/F dust concentrations. Our emissions index could be improved by incorporating local meteorological data and terrain characteristics. Future research is needed to better understand the links between nearby emission sources, human exposure pathways, and health risks.

KEYWORDS:

Air pollution; Dioxins; Dust; Environmental exposure; Furans; Geographic information systems; Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL)

PMID:
28017415
PMCID:
PMC5330683
[Available on 2018-02-15]
DOI:
10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.12.090
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