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Drug Alcohol Depend. 2017 Jan 1;170:189-197. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2016.11.011. Epub 2016 Nov 19.

Mortality and virological failure among HIV-infected people who inject drugs on antiretroviral treatment in China: An observational cohort study.

Author information

1
Division of Treatment and Care, National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.
2
Division of Prevention and Intervention, National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China; Center for Interdisciplinary Research on AIDS and Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, 135 College Street, New Haven, CT, USA.
3
Division of Prevention and Intervention, National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.
4
Division of Prevention and Intervention, National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China. Electronic address: wuzy@263.net.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

HIV-infected people who inject drugs (PWID) have a disproportionally low rate of access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). We aimed to assess the impact of ART on 12-month mortality and virological failure of HIV-infected PWID in China, stratified by methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) and active drug use status.

METHODS:

HIV-infected PWID who initiated ART at 29 clinics in 2011 were enrolled and followed in this prospective cohort study. Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank tests were used to compare the survival probability. Risk factors for mortality and virological failure were evaluated by Cox proportional hazards models and logistic regression analyses.

RESULTS:

A total of 1,633 participants initiated ART. At the time of initiation, 324 were on MMT, 625 were engaged in active drug use, and 684 had discontinued drug use but were not on MMT. At the 12-month follow-up, 80.3% remained on ART, 13.5% had discontinued ART, and 6.2% had died. Among the MMT group, active drug use group, and drug abstinent group, we observed all-cause mortality of 4.9%, 12.0%, and 1.5% and virological suppression of 51.9%, 41.1%, and 68.7%, respectively. Factors associated with both mortality and virological failure were drug use status, unemployment, and treatment facility type.

CONCLUSION:

For HIV-infected PWID receiving ART, engagement in MMT and discontinuation of drug use were more likely to be associated with lower mortality and virological failure compared with active drug use. In order to maximize the clinical impact of ART, HIV treatment programs in China should be further integrated with MMT and social services.

KEYWORDS:

Antiretroviral therapy; HIV/AIDS; Mortality; People who inject drug; Virological failure

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