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Nat Rev Immunol. 2017 Jan;17(1):7-20. doi: 10.1038/nri.2016.117. Epub 2016 Nov 28.

Early local immune defences in the respiratory tract.

Author information

1
Department of Immunobiology, Yale School of Medicine. New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA.
2
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale School of Medicine. New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA.
3
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA.

Abstract

The respiratory immune response consists of multiple tiers of cellular responses that are engaged in a sequential manner in order to control infections. The stepwise engagement of effector functions with progressively increasing host fitness costs limits tissue damage. In addition, specific mechanisms are in place to promote disease tolerance in response to respiratory infections. Environmental factors, obesity and the ageing process can alter the efficiency and regulation of this tiered response, increasing pathology and mortality as a result. In this Review, we describe the cell types that coordinate pathogen clearance and tissue repair through the serial secretion of cytokines, and discuss how the environment and comorbidity influence this response.

PMID:
27890913
PMCID:
PMC5480291
DOI:
10.1038/nri.2016.117
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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