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Prostate. 2017 Apr;77(5):437-445. doi: 10.1002/pros.23281. Epub 2016 Nov 21.

Myelodysplastic Syndromes and Acute Myeloid Leukemia After Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer: A Population-Based Study.

Author information

1
Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut.
2
Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy and Effectiveness Research Center, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.
3
Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.
4
Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.
5
Department of Health Policy and Management, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

To understand the impact of radiotherapy on the development of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) among elderly prostate cancer patients.

METHODS:

We performed a retrospective cohort study of elderly prostate cancer patients diagnosed during 1999-2011 by using the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare linked database. Competing risk analyses adjusting for patient characteristics were conducted to assess the impact of radiotherapy on the development of subsequent MDS/AML, compared with surgery.

RESULTS:

Of 32,112 prostate cancer patients, 14,672 underwent radiotherapy, and 17,440 received surgery only. The median follow-up was 4.68 years. A total of 157 (0.47%) prostate cancer patients developed subsequent MDS or AML, and the median time to develop MDS/AML was 3.30 (range: 0.16-9.48) years. Compared with prostate cancer patients who received surgery only, patients who underwent radiotherapy had a significantly increased risk of developing MDS/AML (hazard ratio [HR] =1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07-2.13). When radiotherapy was further categorized by modalities (brachytherapy, conventional conformal radiotherapy, and intensity-modulated radiotherapy [IMRT]), increased risk of second MDS/AML was only observed in the IMRT group (HR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.09-2.54).

CONCLUSIONS:

Our findings suggest that radiotherapy for prostate cancer increases the risk of MDS/AML, and the impact may differ by modality. Additional studies with longer follow-up are needed to further clarify the role of radiotherapy in the development of subsequent myeloid malignancies. A better understanding may help patients, physicians, and other stakeholders make more informed treatment decisions. Prostate 77:437-445, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

KEYWORDS:

acute myeloid leukemia; myelodysplastic syndromes; prostate cancer; radiotherapy; second cancer

PMID:
27868212
PMCID:
PMC5785924
DOI:
10.1002/pros.23281
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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