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Development. 2016 Dec 15;143(24):4701-4712. Epub 2016 Nov 11.

Delayed neurogenesis with respect to eye growth shapes the pigeon retina for high visual acuity.

Author information

1
Department of Molecular Biology and Department of Biochemistry, Sciences III, University of Geneva, 30 quai Ernest-Ansermet, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.
2
Shiley Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.
3
Department of Molecular Biology and Department of Biochemistry, Sciences III, University of Geneva, 30 quai Ernest-Ansermet, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland jean-marc.matter@unige.ch.

Abstract

The macula and fovea located at the optical centre of the retina make primate visual perception unique among mammals. Our current understanding of retina ontogenesis is primarily based on animal models having no macula and no fovea. However, the pigeon retina and the human macula share a number of structural and functional properties that justify introducing the former as a new model system for retina development. Comparative transcriptome analysis of pigeon and chicken retinas at different embryonic stages reveals that the genetic programmes underlying cell differentiation are postponed in the pigeon until the end of the period of cell proliferation. We show that the late onset of neurogenesis has a profound effect on the developmental patterning of the pigeon retina, which is at odds with the current models of retina development. The uncoupling of tissue growth and neurogenesis is shown to result from the fact that the pigeon retinal epithelium is inhibitory to cell differentiation. The sum of these developmental features allows the pigeon to build a retina that displays the structural and functional traits typical of primate macula and fovea.

KEYWORDS:

Atonal homolog 7; Avian transcriptome; Fibroblast growth factor 3; Neurogenin 2; Notch signalling; Photoreceptor; Retinal ganglion cell

PMID:
27836962
DOI:
10.1242/dev.138719
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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