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J Hepatol. 2017 Mar;66(3):571-580. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2016.10.032. Epub 2016 Nov 5.

Adenylyl cyclase 5 links changes in calcium homeostasis to cAMP-dependent cyst growth in polycystic liver disease.

Author information

1
Section of Digestive Diseases, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.
2
Section of Digestive Diseases, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA; Section of Digestive Diseases, International Center for Digestive Health, Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milan-Bicocca, Milan, Italy.
3
Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Padua, Italy.
4
Section of Digestive Diseases, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA; Section of Digestive Diseases, International Center for Digestive Health, Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milan-Bicocca, Milan, Italy. Electronic address: mario.strazzabosco@yale.edu.

Abstract

BACKGROUND & AIMS:

Genetic defects in polycystin-1 or -2 (PC1 or PC2) cause polycystic liver disease associated with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (PLD-ADPKD). Progressive cyst growth is sustained by a cAMP-dependent Ras/ERK/HIFα pathway, leading to increased vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) signaling. In PC2-defective cholangiocytes, cAMP production in response to [Ca2+]ER depletion is increased, while store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE), intracellular and endoplasmic reticulum [Ca2+]ER levels are reduced. We investigated whether the adenylyl cyclases, AC5 and AC6, which can be inhibited by Ca2+, are activated by the ER chaperone STIM1. This would result in cAMP/PKA-dependent Ras/ERK/HIFα pathway activation in PC2-defective cells, in response to [Ca2+]ER depletion.

METHODS:

PC2/AC6 double conditional knockout (KO) mice were generated (Pkd2/AC6 KO) and compared to Pkd2 KO mice. The AC5 inhibitor SQ22,536 or AC5 siRNA were used in isolated cholangiocytes while the inhibitor was used in biliary organoid and animals; liver tissues were harvested for histochemical analysis.

RESULTS:

When comparing Pkd2/AC6 KO to Pkd2 KO mice, no decrease in liver cyst size was found, and cellular cAMP after [Ca2+]ER depletion only decreased by 12%. Conversely, in PC2-defective cells, inhibition of AC5 significantly reduced cAMP production, pERK1/2 expression and VEGF-A secretion. AC5 inhibitors significantly reduced growth of biliary organoids derived from Pkd2 KO and Pkd2/AC6 KO mice. In vivo treatment with SQ22,536 significantly reduced liver cystic area and cell proliferation in PC2-defective mice. After [Ca2+]ER depletion in PC2-defective cells, STIM1 interacts with AC5 but not with Orai1, the Ca2+ channel that mediates SOCE.

CONCLUSION:

[Ca2+]ER depletion in PC2-defective cells activates AC5 and results in stimulation of cAMP/ERK1-2 signaling, VEGF production and cyst growth. This mechanism may represent a novel therapeutic target.

LAY SUMMARY:

Polycystic liver diseases are characterized by progressive cyst growth until their complications mandate surgery or liver transplantation. In this manuscript, we demonstrate that inhibiting cell proliferation, which is induced by increased levels of cAMP, may represent a novel therapeutic target to slow the progression of the disease.

KEYWORDS:

Adenylyl cyclases; Calcium; Cysts; Mice, knockout; Organoids; Polycystic kidney, autosomal dominant; Polycystic liver diseases; RNA, small interfering; VEGF; cAMP

PMID:
27826057
PMCID:
PMC5316496
DOI:
10.1016/j.jhep.2016.10.032
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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