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BMJ Open. 2016 Oct 24;6(10):e013355. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-013355.

China PEACE risk estimation tool for in-hospital death from acute myocardial infarction: an early risk classification tree for decisions about fibrinolytic therapy.

Author information

State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, National Clinical Research Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.
Division of Cardiology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado, USA.
Saint Luke's Mid America Heart Institute/University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, Missouri, USA.
Center for Outcomes Research and Evaluation, Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine; Center for Outcomes Research and Evaluation, Yale-New Haven Hospital; Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Clinical Scholars Program, Department of Medicine, Yale School of Medicine; Department of Health Policy and Management, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.



As the predominant approach to acute reperfusion for ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in many countries, fibrinolytic therapy provides a relative risk reduction for death of ∼16% across the range of baseline risk. For patients with low baseline mortality risk, fibrinolytic therapy may therefore provide little benefit, which may be offset by the risk of major bleeding. We aimed to construct a tool to determine if it is possible to identify a low-risk group among fibrinolytic therapy-eligible patients.


Cross-sectional study.


The China Patient-centered Evaluative Assessment of Cardiac Events (PEACE) study includes a nationally representative retrospective sample of patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in 162 hospitals.


3741 patients with STEMI who were fibrinolytic-eligible but did not receive reperfusion therapy.


In-hospital mortality, which was defined as a composite of death occurring within hospitalisation or withdrawal from treatment due to a terminal status at discharge.


In the study cohort, the in-hospital mortality was 14.7%. In the derivation cohort and the validation cohort, the combination of systolic blood pressure (≥100 mm Hg), age (<60 years old) and gender (male) identified one-fifth of the cohort with an average mortality rate of <3.0%. Half of this low risk group-those with non-anterior AMI-had an average in-hospital death risk of 1.5%.


Nearly, one in five patients with STEMI who are eligible for fibrinolytic therapy are at a low risk for in-hospital death. Three simple factors available at the time of presentation can identify these individuals and support decision-making about the use of fibrinolytic therapy.




Fibrinolytic therapy; risk tool

Conflict of interest statement

HMK reports research grants from Medtronic and Johnson & Johnson, through Yale University, to develop methods of clinical trial data sharing, and the chair of a cardiac scientific advisory board for UnitedHealth.

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